motivation in an organisation-B.V.Raghunanadan


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explains various motivational theories, the limitations of modern HR practices and guidelines for an optimal HR policies

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motivation in an organisation-B.V.Raghunanadan

  1. 1. Motivation and Organisations -B.V.Raghunandan, SVS College, Bantwal Alva’s College’ Moodbidre August 19,2010
  2. 2. What it is……. <ul><li>The forces that instigate or incite a person or a group of persons to carry out an act or to indulge in an endeavor </li></ul><ul><li>The process whereby the people in an institution are driven to achieve the objectives of the organisation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Complexities arise due to….. <ul><li>Complexities of human mind </li></ul><ul><li>Loose system of administration </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Inept handling of issues </li></ul><ul><li>Favouritism </li></ul><ul><li>Incompetent leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of vision for the organisation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Importance of Motivation Study <ul><li>Excellence in performance </li></ul><ul><li>Quality in work place </li></ul><ul><li>Higher productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding people </li></ul><ul><li>New frontiers in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Development of skills </li></ul>
  5. 5. Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Classical Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Theories </li></ul>
  6. 6. Classical Theories <ul><li>F.W.Taylor’s Scientific Management </li></ul><ul><li>Elton Mayo’s </li></ul><ul><li>Human Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Model </li></ul>
  7. 7. Modern Theories <ul><li>Maslow’s ‘need hierarchy’ theory </li></ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s ‘Two Factor’ Theory </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland's ‘Achievement’ Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Alderfer’s ‘ERG’ Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Murray’s ‘manifest needs’ Theory </li></ul>
  8. 8. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Born in 1908 in New York and died in 1970 </li></ul><ul><li>Did Ph.D in psychology in 1934 in Wisconsin University </li></ul><ul><li>Based on that, studied the behaviour of rhesus monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>Published, ‘Motivation and Personality’ in 1954-Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy <ul><li>Physiological needs </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Social Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualisation </li></ul>
  10. 11. Frederick Irving Herzberg <ul><li>1923-2000 </li></ul><ul><li>American Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Published in 1968, </li></ul><ul><li>‘ One More Time, How Do You Motivate Employees?’ </li></ul><ul><li>-studied in City College of New York </li></ul><ul><li>-worked in University of Utah </li></ul>
  11. 12. Herzberg’s TWO Factors <ul><li>Motivators/Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Work itself </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene/Dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Pay & Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Co. Policy & Admn </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship with co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Job Security </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Personal life </li></ul>
  12. 13. McClelland's ‘Achievements’ Theory <ul><li>Doing the impossible </li></ul><ul><li>Task likely to receive the appreciation of many </li></ul><ul><li>Money, power, and recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem and self-actualisation </li></ul><ul><li>The objective may be only a zero beyond the acievement </li></ul>
  13. 14. Clay Alderfer <ul><li>Grew up in Bethleham, Pennsylvania </li></ul><ul><li>Senior faculty at Yale University </li></ul><ul><li>Research in human needs in organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-group relations theory </li></ul>
  14. 15. Alderfer’s ERG Theory <ul><li>Existence </li></ul><ul><li>Relatedness </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul>
  15. 16. Strategies for Motivation <ul><li>Theories are silent </li></ul><ul><li>Religions like Zoarashtrianism preaches treating employees as members of one’s own family </li></ul><ul><li>Zen Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Treating them as equals </li></ul><ul><li>Calling for suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Offering life-time employment as Japanese do </li></ul>
  16. 17. Modern HR Practices <ul><li>Look at the employees doubtfully </li></ul><ul><li>Consider them as the machines of production </li></ul><ul><li>Hypocritical statements of equality </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly aim at extracting the maximum work </li></ul><ul><li>Regard the employees as expendable and replaceable </li></ul>
  17. 18. Basic Defects of HR Practices <ul><li>Relying heavily on western practices </li></ul><ul><li>Social Qualities are not developed </li></ul><ul><li>Too much orientation towards machines and technology </li></ul><ul><li>No attempt to develop normalcy in individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional loyalty is ignored </li></ul><ul><li>Passion, Spiritualism and Selflessness not stressed upon </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Best Strategy <ul><li>Treat him for what he is </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., a human being </li></ul>
  19. 20. THANK YOU