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Ultrasonic sound

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  • 1. ULTRASONIC SOUND
  • 2. ntents LTRASOUND OPES OF ULTRASOUND LTRASONICS ERCEPTION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS •HUMANS •ANIMALS ETECTION AND RANGING •NON CONTACT CENSOR •NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING •ULTRASONIC RANGE FINDING: SONAR MAGING: MEDICAL SONOGRAPHY BREAKING DOWN KIDNEY STONES ADAR ULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
  • 3. ULTRASOUND Ultrasound is an oscillating sound pressure wave with a frequency greater than the upper limit of the human hearing range. Ultrasound is thus not separated from 'normal' (audible) sound based on differences in physical properties, only the fact that humans cannot hear it. Although this limit varies from person to person, it is approximately 20 kilohertz (20,000 hertz) in healthy, young adults. Ultrasound devices operate with frequencies from 20 kHz up to several gigahertz.
  • 4. SCOPES OF ULTRASOUND
  • 5. Ultrasonics Ultrasonics is the application of ultrasound. Ultrasound can be used for medical imaging, detection, measurement and cleaning. At higher power levels, ultrasonics is useful for changing the chemical properties of substances.
  • 6. Perception in humans and animals Humans The upper frequency limit in humans (approximately 20 kHz) is due to limitations of the middle ear.Ultrasonic hearing can occur if ultrasound is fed directly into the human skull and reaches the cochlea through bone conduction, without passing through the middle ear. Children can hear some high-pitched sounds that older adults cannot hear, because in humans the upper limit pitch of hearing tends to decrease with age. Some people find high-frequency sounds and ultrasound extremely painful. This is often associated with autism and sensory defensiveness[6] but can also be caused by hyperacusis.
  • 7. Animals 1.Bats use a variety of ultrasonic ranging ( echolocation) techniques to detect their prey. They can detect frequencies beyond 100 kHz, possibly up to 200 kHz. 2.Dogs with normal hearing can hear ultrasound. A dog whistle exploits this by emitting a high frequency sound to call to a dog. 3.Toothed whales, including dolphins, can hear ultrasound and use such sounds in their navigational system ( biosonar) to orient and capture prey. 4.Porpoises have the highest known upper hearing limit, at around 160 kHz. 5. Several types of fish can detect ultrasound. In the order Clupeiformes, members of the subfamily Alosinae (shad), have been shown to be able to detect sounds up to 180 kHz, while the other subfamilies (e.g. herrings) can hear only up to 4 kHz.
  • 8. BAT
  • 9. Detection and Ranging Non-contact sensor An ultrasonic level or sensing system requires no contact with the target. For many processes in the medical, pharmaceutical, military and general industries this is an advantage over inline sensors that may contaminate the liquids inside a vessel or tube or that may be clogged by the product. Non-destructive testing Ultrasonic testing is a type of nondestructive testing commonly used to find flaws in materials and to measure the thickness of objects.
  • 10. Ultrasonic range finding SONAR Sonar stands for sound navigation and ranging .
  • 11. A common use of ultrasound is in underwater range finding; this use is also called Sonar. An ultrasonic pulse is generated in a particular direction. If there is an object in the path of this pulse, part or all of the pulse will be reflected back to the transmitter as an echo and can be detected through the receiver path.
  • 12. Imaging Medical sonography Medical sonography (ultrasonography) is an ultrasound-based diagnostic medical imaging technique used to visualize muscles, tendons, and many internal organs, to capture their size, structure and any pathological lesions with real time tomographic images.
  • 13. Sonogram of a fetus at 12 weeks
  • 14. Breaking down kidney stones A high powered ultrasound wave is used to break down kidney stones and other stones in the body. The stones vibrate until they shake themselves apart and are then easily passed out of the body via the urethra.
  • 15. RADAR
  • 16. Radar and ultrasonic sound waves made by dolphins Even though dolphins live in the darkness of the sea, they can still search for food in the form of fish. They do this by emitting sound that cannot be detected by the human ear (ultrasonic sound waves) and catching the sound that comes back like an echo. Even though they cannot see their food, they can tell their direction and distance by using ultrasonic sound waves. The way radar works and the way that dolphins use ultrasonic sound waves are much the same.
  • 17. Q1: Audible range of hearing is a. 20Hz TO 30000Hz b. 20Hz TO 20000Hz c. 10Hz to 20Hz d. 60Hz Ans. [b] Q2: The unit of quantity on which pitch of the sound depends is : (A)Hertz (B) meter (C) meter/second (D) second ANS. [a]
  • 18. Q3. Nature of sound wave is : (A)transverse (B) longitudinal (C) electromagnetic (D) Seism ANS. [B] Q4. Sound waves in air are : (A)Longitudinal waves (B) Radio waves (C) Transverse waves (D) Electromagnetic waves
  • 19. Q5. In SONAR we use : a.Ultrasonic waves b.Infrasonic waves c.Radio waves d.Audible sound waves Ans. [a] Q6. which kind of sound is produced in an earthquake before the main shock wave begins? a.Ultrasound b. Infrasound c. Audible sound d. None of the above Ans. [b]
  • 20. Q7. ‘Note’ is a sound: a.Of a mixture of several frequencies b.Of mixture of only two frequencies c. of a single frequency d. always unpleasant to listen to Ans. [c] Q8. one of the following can hear infrasound: a.Rhinoceros b. bat c. humans d. dog Ans. [a]
  • 21. Q9. The ultrasound waves can penetrate into matter to a large extent because they have: a.Very high speed b.Very high frequency c. very high wavelength d. very high amplitude Ans. [b] Q10. what types of waves are generated by SONAR device fixed to a fishing ship: a.Water waves b. radio waves c. sound waves d. infrared waves Ans. [c]