Synthetic Food coloring

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  • FD&C- set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics
  • FCF > For Coloring Food[1] / For Colouring of Food,[2][3] a term to describe a number of food colorings
  • Fermented milks (plain), heat-treated after fermentation > 6 mg/kg. Dairy-based desserts (e.g., ice cream, ice milk, pudding, fruit or flavoured yoghurt) > 300 mg/kg. Jams, jellies and marmelades > 500 mg/kg
  • Azo compounds are compounds bearing the functional group R-N=N-R', in which R and R' can be either aryl or alkyl. Amaranth, FD&C Red No. 2, E123, C.I. Food Red 9, Acid Red 27, Azorubin S, or C.I. 16185, is a dark red to purple azo dye once used as a food dye and to color cosmetics, but since 1976 it has been banned in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it is a suspectedcarcinogen.
  • Synthetic Food coloring

    1. 1. DEFINITION  any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink  derived from coal tar and petroleum  come in many forms consisting of liquids, powders, gels and pastes  tested for safety by various bodies around the world  United States > FD&C(Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) are given to approved synthetic food dyes that do not exist in nature  European Union > E numbers are used for all additives, both synthetic and natural, that are approved in food applications
    2. 2. Color additives are used in foods for many reasons including:  offset color loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions  correct natural variations in color  enhance colors that occur naturally  provide color to colorless and "fun" foods
    3. 3. Seven dyes approved under the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906  FD&C Blue No. 1 – Brilliant Blue FCF, E133 (blue shade)  FD&C Blue No. 2 – Indigotine, E132 (indigo shade)  FD&C Green No. 3 – Fast Green FCF, E143 (turquoise shade)  FD&C Red No. 40 – Allura Red AC, E129 (red shade)  FD&C Red No. 3 – Erythrosine, E127 (pink shade)  FD&C Yellow No. 5 – Tartrazine, E102 (yellow shade)  FD&C Yellow No. 6 – Sunset Yellow FCF, E110 (orange shade)
    4. 4. 1. Brilliant Blue FCF (E133) FD&C Blue No. 1  IUPAC NAME > ethyl - [4 - [ [4 - [ethyl -[(3 - sulfophenyl) methyl] amino] phenyl] - (2 - sulfophenyl) methylidene] - 1 - cyclohexa - 2, 5 - dienylidene] - [(3 - sulfophenyl) methyl] azanium  MOLECULAR FORMULA > C37H34N2Na2O9S3  synthetic dye produced using aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum  has the appearance of a reddish-blue powder  soluble in water  has the capacity for inducing anallergic reaction in individuals with pre-existing moderate asthma  Banned in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland
    5. 5. Applications:  found in:  ice cream,  canned processed peas,  packet soups,  bottled food colorings,  icings,  ice pops,  blue raspberry flavored products,  dairy products,  sweets and drinks,  blue curacao
    6. 6. 2. Indigotine (E132) FD&C Blue No. 2  IUPAC NAME > 3,3'-dioxo-2,2'-bis-indolyden-5,5'-disulfonic acid disodium salt or indigotine; 5,5'-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt  MOLECULAR FORMULA > C16H8N2Na2O8S2  6mg/kg – 500mg/kg  a pH indicator; blue at pH 11.4 and yellow at 13.0  is used chiefly as a biological stain and food color  can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity  harmful to the respiratory tract if inhaled  irritant to the skin and eyes
    7. 7. 3. Fast Green FCF (E143) FD&C Green No. 3  IUPAC NAME > ethyl - [4 - [ [4 - [ethyl -[(3 - sulfophenyl) methyl] amino] phenyl] - (4 - hydroxy - 2 - sulfophenyl) methylidene] - 1 - cyclohexa - 2, 5 - dienylidene] - [(3 - sulfophenyl) methyl] azanium  MOLECULAR FORMULA > C37H37N2O10S3+  sea green triarylmethane food dye  color is more brilliant and less likely to fade  used for tinned green peas and other vegetables, jellies, sauces, fish, desserts, and dry bakery mixes at level of up to 100 mg/kg  have tumorigenic effects  risks irritation of eyes, skin, digestive tract, and respiratory tract in its undiluted form
    8. 8. 4. Allura Red AC (E129) FD&C Red No. 40  IUPAC NAME > disodium 6-hydroxy-5-((2- methoxy-5-methyl-4-sulfophenyl)azo)-2- naphthalenesulfonate  MOLECULAR FORMULA > C18H14N2Na2O8S2  red azo dye  originally introduced in the United States as a replacement for the use of amaranth as a food coloring  has the appearance of a dark red powder  used in many products, such as soft drinks, children's medications, and cotton candy
    9. 9. 5. Erythrosine (E127) FD&C Red No. 3  IUPAC NAME >  MOLECULAR FORMULA >
    10. 10.  IUPAC NAME >  MOLECULAR FORMULA >
    11. 11.  IUPAC NAME >  MOLECULAR FORMULA >

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