Perencanaan Pengajaran


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Berisi tentang proses belajar dan pembelajaran antara seorang guru dengan murid atau peserta didik, dan penyusunan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan (KTSP)
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  • Perencanaan Pengajaran

    1. 1. Instructional Design
    2. 2. Teaching and Learning Process
    3. 3. Teaching and Learning Interactions Teaching and Learning is a term that implies the interaction activities between teachers and students to achieve the goals set. The term learning and teaching or learning is often encountered in the learning of foreign literature or instruction
    4. 4. Learning and Instruction Fontana (1981) Learning : process changes that are relatively fixed in the behavior of individuals as a result of experience. This implies that: learning should enable individual behavioral change, the change must be the fruit of experience.
    5. 5. Learning and Instruction Romiszwoski (1981) Instruction : refers to the process of teaching that is centered on the purpose or goal direct teaching process which in many cases can be planned in advance (preplanned).
    6. 6. Interactions that occur in a teaching situation called interaction teaching / instructional interaction, which is a process that was pursued by the bond teaching purposes (intended purpose / set and have sistematized directionally) Interaction teaching is / are bound by the situation and the purpose of education is called educational or teaching interaction called "instructive interaction".
    7. 7. Interactions are also commonly referred educative teaching and learning interactions, because these interactions occur in the process of learning and teaching processes In the interaction that happens students learn and teachers teach, both in order to achieve educational goals. In each educative interaction will always contain two main elements, namely: the normative elements and technical elements.
    8. 8. Schematic interaction educative teaching B cA D Description: A: educative Interaction B: Process / Normative Aspects C: Process / Technical Aspects D: Purpose of Education
    9. 9. Communication between teachers and students called the learning interaction. In a narrow sense: Teaching and learning interactions called interaction learning, for teaching done with the intention of helping students to learn the circumstances provide the right conditions for students to learn.
    10. 10. Fundamentals of learning interactions Interaction is instructive Interactions that take place in order to achieve educational goals In the teaching-learning interactions are expected to occur for behavioral changes in students as a result of learning
    11. 11. The role and status of teachers in the process of teaching and learning interactions Role • facilitators • preceptor • motivator • Organizer (individualistic non-collaboration) Position • teacher • Leader (individualistic non- collaboration) • Substitute Parents
    12. 12. Forms of teaching and Learning interactions • Ancient opinion Teaching is merely transferring knowledge to students • Another opinion The integration of the values ​​who is given to the student by the teacher
    13. 13. Teaching is transfer process of knowledge to students Teacher Students
    14. 14. Teaching is teach students how to learn teacher Students
    15. 15. Teaching is interactive relationship between teacher and student or teacher with student teacher teacher
    16. 16. Student Student Student Teaching is process interaction of student with student and teacher consultation
    17. 17. The factors that base on teaching and learning interactions • There is a goal to be achieved • There is material in the teaching learning process • There are teachers who teach • There are students who are teaching and learning process • There are certain methods to achieve goals • The process takes place in the bonding interaction situational
    18. 18. 1. Factors of goals The general’s and special’s goal of education or teaching must be based on three objectives (Bloom's Taxonomy): a. Cognitive objective b. Affective objective c. Psychomotor objective
    19. 19. The Functions and the purposes of teaching • Being the central point of attention and guidance in carrying out activities / teaching interaction • Determines the direction of the activities / teaching interaction • Being the central point of attention and guidance in formulating the design of teaching • Become a subject matter that will be developed in deepening and expanding the scope of teaching • A guideline to prevent / avoid the deviation of teaching.
    20. 20. 2. Factors instructional materials The determination must be based on teaching materials to fullfill the purpose of teaching 3. Factors teachers and learners Things that must the learners consider: • Learners must put the sanctity of life • Students must be willing to seek knowledge. • Do not brag about the knowledge that they have, especially against the teacher. • Learners must know the position of the knowledge that they’ve been learned.
    21. 21. 4. Factors Methods The method is a way to achieve the goals. 5. Factors situations The situation is a learning environment or the classroom.
    22. 22. Studying process in student oriented In studying process, students aren’t just use teacher as one of study source, but maybe use with all of source for get the point of study. teachers are a model, because teacers behaviours affect to students’s study activity. Student look the teachers as a model who they can follow for good attitude or good advice
    23. 23. Studying process in teacher oriented Profesional teacher task can measure how teacher can create studying process will efective and efficient Because teacher has role as school’s mediator to student’s parent. Teacher mus concern to stundet’s peformance, achievment, progress in studying process
    24. 24. – Emotion & character – interest – Dream – hobby – Society – environment – Problem Teacher must sensitive about their student
    25. 25. Learning System Enquiry Discovery Learning searching and get by self. Student must active Expository Learning Teacher give all of thing about student’s study subject Mastery Learning Teachet direct help student for get the point of study
    26. 26. Studying Strategy 1. Indentification and create a specification and qualification about change student’s behaviors. 2. Choose the studying system by aspiration and people oriented. 3. Choose the best procedur, method, and technic for studying process. 4. Create a standard for studying goal or studying criteria for give feed back to student
    27. 27. Drafting of The Educational Unit Basic and Secondary Level Curriculum
    28. 28. 1. Explaining the content standards 2. Outlining competency 3. Describing self-development and local content 4. Describing the development of Graduates Competency Standard and Standard content 5. Explaining the Education Unit Level Curriculum (KTSP) COMPETENCE
    29. 29. • Standard content is the scope and level of matter competency requirements as outlined in the graduate competencies, competency assessment materials, subjects and competencies that must be met learners learning syllabus • Standard content includes the basic framework and structure of the curriculum, the burden of learning, curriculum unit level of education, and the education calendar 1. Content standards
    30. 30. • CURRICULUM STRUCTURE an array of patterns and the subjects to be taken by learners in learning activities • CURRICULUM SRUCTURE compiled based competency standards and competency standards courses
    31. 31. • Graduation Competency standards (SKL) is used as a guideline in determining the assessment of students' graduation attendees unit educator. • Competency is the ability of a graduate qualification that includes the attitudes, knowledge and national skill standards that have been agreed upon. 2. Graduation Competency Standard
    32. 32. • LOCAL CONTENT is an extra activities to develop competencies that are tailored to the characteristics and potential of the region, including areas of excellence • Local content subjects, making education units must develop competency standards and competency base for any kind of local content organized 3. Development and Implementation of Local Self Content
    33. 33. • DEVELOPMENT OF SELF is an activity that aims not give the opportunity to students to develop and express themselves according to the needs, talents, and interests of each learner according • Self-development is not a subject. Assessment of self-development activities conducted in a qualitative, not quantitative as in subjects
    34. 34. The Development of Graduates Competency Standards, Content Standards on Education Unit – Act No. 20 of 2003 about National Education System Section 36 up to Section 38 – Government Regulation no.19/2005 concerning National Education Standards section 5 up to section 18 and section 25 up to section 27 – The regulation of national education minister no.22/2006 concerning the content standards for elementary and secondary education unit. – The Regulation of the National Education Minister no.23/2006 concerning Graduates Competency Standards for primary and secondary education unit.
    35. 35. National Education Standards 1. Content Standards 2. Graduates Competency Standards 3. Standards of process 4. Teachers and Education Personnel Standards 5. Infrastructure Standards 6. Management standards 7. Educational Assessment Standards 8. Financing standards
    36. 36. The implementation of Content Standards and Graduates Competency Standards National Education Standard Agency Content Standard Graduates Competency Standard Creating higher standards Adopting and Adapting
    37. 37. The Implementation of Graduates Competency Standard Graduates Competency Standard National Education Standard Agency Government Regulation Graduates Competency Standard College/University
    38. 38. The implementation stage of Graduates Competency Standard and Content Standard First Year 1 and 4 Second Year 1, 2, 4 and 5 Third Year All of it 1-6 First Year 7 and 10 Second Year 8 and 11 Third Year 9 and 12
    39. 39. CURRICULUM purpose content learning materials Methods
    40. 40. The Educational Unit Level Curriculum The Educational Unit Level Curriculum is the operational curriculum developed and implemented by each educational unit. The Educational Unit Level Curriculum consists of the goals each unit education level, curriculum structure and load of unit education level, education calendar and syllabus.
    41. 41. The development principles of The Educational Unit Level Curriculum 1. Focused on the potential, progress, needs and interests of students and their environment. 2. Diverse and integrated. 3. Responsive to the development of science, technology and art. 4. Relevant to the needs of life. 5. Comprehensive and continuous 6. Lifelong learning 7. Balance between national interests and regional interests.
    42. 42. Operational guidelines for The Educational Unit Level Curriculum 1. The increase of faith and piety and a noble character. 2. The increase in potential, intelligence, and interest in accordance with the level of development and abilities of learners. 3. The diversity of potential and characteristics of the area and the environment. 4. The demands of regional and national development 5. The demands of the working world 6. Developments in science, technology, and art. 7. Religion 8. The dynamics of global development 9. National unity and national values 10. The condition of social and cultural 11. Gender equality 12. Characteristics the educational units
    43. 43. The Components of The Educational Unit Level Curriculum A. The Purpose of Educational Unit Level B. Structure and Content of Educational Unit Level Curriculum C. Education Calendar
    44. 44. The Purpose of Educational Unit Level 1. The purpose of basic education is laying the foundation of intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble character, and the skills to live independently and follow further education. 2. The purpose of secondary education is to increase the intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble character, and the skills to live independently and follow further education. 3. The purpose of vocational secondary education is increasing intelligence, knowledge, personality, noble character, and the skills to live independently and follow further education according to the vocational.
    45. 45. Structure and Content of Education Unit Level Curriculum The Structure of The Educational Unit Level Curriculum in elementary and secondary level contained in content standards, which are developed from a group of subjects as follows : – Religion and moral values – Citizenship and personality – Science and technology – aesthetics – physical, sports, and health
    46. 46. The Contents of The Educational Unit Level Curriculum covers a number of subjects that the breadth and depth are a burden for students studying in the educational unit. Besides local substance and self development activities included in the curriculum. 1. The subjects 2. The local content 3. Self-development activities 4. Setting the load learning 5. The increase in grade, placement of, and graduation 6. Life skills education 7. Education based on local and global excellence
    47. 47. 1. Subjects, and the allocation of time for each level of educational units are listed on the structures listed in the curriculum content standards 2. The Local Content – is a subject, so that educational unit should develop competencies standard and basic competencies for each type of local content organized. – The educational unit can organize a local content subjects each semester. This means that in one year, the educational unit can hold two local content subjects.
    48. 48. 3. Self-development activities – Self-development activities are activities that are aimed at providing opportunities for learners to develop and express themselves according to the needs, talents, interests, each learner according to the conditions of the school. – self-development activities facilitated or guided by a counselor, teacher, or educational staff to do in the form of extracurricular activities.
    49. 49. Self-development activities can be done through counseling service activities with respect to individual and social life, learning, and career development of students and scouting activities, leadership, and youth academic groups. Self-development is not a subject. Assessment of self-development activities conducted in a qualitative, not quantitative as the subjects.
    50. 50. 4. Setting the load of learning – The load learning the system package is used by both the unit level basic education standard or independent categories, and the level of secondary education unit standard category. – The load learning in semester credit system (SKS) can be used by junior high school (SMP) with independent category, and by senior high school (SMA) with standard category.
    51. 51. The load of learning in Semester Credit System (SKS) is used by the high school category independently. Learning hours for each subject on the system on package system allocated as indicated in the structure of the curriculum. Education units maximum possible to add four hours of lessons per week as a whole
    52. 52. Utilization of additional learning time to consider the needs of learners in achieving competence, as well as be used for other subjects that are considered important and not on the structure of the curriculum listed in the content standards
    53. 53. • Allocation of time for self-mastery structured and unstructured activities in the system package for basic education 0% -40% • Allocation of time for self-mastery structured and unstructured activities in the system package for secondary education (junior high school) 0%-50% • Allocation of time for self-mastery structured and unstructured activities in the system package for senior secondary education (senior high school) 0%-60% • Allocation of time to practice, two hours of practical activities in school the equivalent of one hour face to face. Four hours of practice outside the school the equivalent of one hour face to face.
    54. 54. - The credits at the junior high school consisted of : a 40-minute face-to-face, 20-minute self- structured activities and unstructured activities - The credits at the high school consists of: 45 minutes face-to-face, 25-minute structured activities and unstructured independent activity
    55. 55. Completeness Learning Mastery learning each indicator set out in the basic competencies range from 0- 100% Ideal criteria of completeness for each indicator is 75% Education units must determine the minimum completeness criteria Education units are expected to increase mastery learning criteria
    56. 56. Reporting the results of learning (report cards) learners The increase in class, and Graduation
    57. 57. In accordance with the provisions of Regulation 19/2005 Article 72 paragraph (1), learners passed from unit after primary and secondary education: Completing the entire program of learning Obtain a minimum value based on the minimum graduation criteria (KKM) Graduate school (MA) for the science and technology subjects Pass the National Exam
    58. 58. Heading Toward • Done in class XI and XII in the Senior High School (SMA / MA) • The criteria set by the relevant technical directorate • Vocational high school (SMK / MAK) based on a spectrum of vocational education
    59. 59. Life Skills Education • Skills include personal, social, academic and vocational skills • May be part of the education of all subjects • Can be obtained from the students from the educational unit concerned
    60. 60. Based Education Excellence Local and Global • Education based on local and global excellence is education that take advantage of the needs of local and global competitiveness • The curriculum for all education units may include education-based local and global excellence • Education based on local and global excellence can be a part of all subjects • Education based on local advantages can be obtained from the unit learners formal education or non-formal education unit
    61. 61. Sample Curriculum vocational high school (SMK) (a study period of 3 years) A. Subject hour lesson 1. Normative 1.1 Religious Education 192 1.2 Civic Education 192 1.3 Indonesia language 192 1.4 Sports physical education 192 1.5 Art & Culture 128 2. Adaptif 2.1 Math 403 2.2 English 403 2.3 Natural Science 440 2.4 Social Sciences 192 2.5 KKPI 128 2.6 Entrepreneurship 202 3. Productive 3.1 Basic competence department 140 3.2 Competence 1044 B. Local COntent 192 C. Self Development 192
    62. 62. Sample Curriculum senior high school (X - SMA) A. Subject hour lesson 1.1 Religious Education 2 1.2 Civic Education 2 1.3 Indonesia language 4 1.4 Sports physical education 2 1.5 Art and Culture 2 1.6 Math 4 1.7 English 4 1.8 Biology 2 1.9 History 1 1.10 information and communications technology 2 1.11 Physics 2 1.12 Economics 2 1.13 Chemistry 2 1.14 Geografi 1 1.15 Sociology 2 B. Local Content 2 C. Self Development 2
    63. 63. Calendar of Education Education units can draw up a calendar of education according to the needs of the region, the characteristics of the school, the needs of learners and society, taking into account the calendar of education as contained in the Content Standards.
    64. 64. Soal 1. Interaksi edukatif mengandung dua unsur pokok yaitu : a. Unsur normatif dan teknis b. Teknis dan afektif c. Afektif dan peran guru d. Organisatir dan teknis e. Afektif dan organisator 2. Disebut apakah komunikasi antara guru dan murid : a. Interaksi b. Interaksi belajar mengajar c. Learning d. Pembelajaran e. Interaksi sosial 3. Tujuan yang berhubungan dengan merubah minat ,setiap nilai dan alasan merupakan : a. Tujuan belajar b. Tujuan kognitif c. Tujuan mengajar d. Tujuan psikomotor e. Tujuan afektif 4. Guru yang membimbing, memotivasi dan mengajar merupakan : a. Tanggung jawab guru b. Kedudukan guru c. Peran guru d. Jabatan sebagai seorang guru e. Hak dari seorang guru
    65. 65. 5. Guru profesional dapat di lihat dari : a. Banyakanya siswa yang dapat nilai tinggi b. Selesainya materi belajar tepat pada waktunya c. Bagaimana guru tersebut dapat membuat proses belajar menjadi efesien dan efektif d. Belajar dengan mudah dan menyenangkan e. Tujuan belajar dengan cara belajar apapun 6. Siswa harus belajar mencari sendiri dan mengeksplorasi proses belajarnya secara aktif, merupakan definisi dari : a. Belajar aktif b. Belajar dengan sudut pandang siswa c. Enquiry Discovery Learning d. Belajar modern e. Student Mastery Learning
    66. 66. 7. Dari pernyataan di bawah ini hal yang harus di perhatikan oleh guru saat mengajar adalah : a. Nilai yang di dapat pada saat ujian b. Kelengkapan belajar siswa c. Masalah yang di hadapi oleh siswa, di lingkungan, emosi dll d. Cara belajar siswa di kelas e. Keaktifan siswa saat belajar 8. Di bawah ini merupakan landasan hukum pengembangan kurikulum tingkat satuan pendidikan (KTSP), kecuali : a. UU no 20 tahun 2003 b. PP no 19 tahun 2005 c. Permendiknas no 22 tahun 2006 d. Permendiknas no 23 tahun 2006 e. Permendiknas no 24 tahun 2006
    67. 67. 9. Permendiknas no 23 tahun 2006 mengatur tentang : a. Standar Isi b. Standar Kompetensi Lulusan c. Standar Proses d. Standar Pendidik e. Standar Pembiayaan 10. Standar Isi dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan pada KTSP ditentukan oleh : a. Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan b. Pemerintah Pusat c. Menteri Pendidikan Nasional d. Departemen Pendidikan e. Departemen Agama
    68. 68. 11. Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar termasuk ke dalam : a. Standar Kompetensi Lulusan b. Standar Proses c. Standar Tenaga Kependidikan d. Standar Isi e. Standar Operasional 12. Pendidikan kecakapan hidup meliputi hal hal di bawah ini kecuali : a. Kecakapan pribadi b. Kecakapan sosial c. Kecapakan akdemik d. Kecakapan vokasional e. Kecakapan berbicara
    69. 69. 13. Pendidikan yang memanfaatkan pengembangan kompetensi peserta dalam aspek budaya , bahasa teknologi dan informasi adalah : a. Pendidikan berbasis keunngulan lokal b. Pendidikan berbasis keunggulan global c. Pendidikan berbasis keunggulan lokal dan global d. Pendidikan berbasik keunggulan kompetensi e. Pendidikan berbasis keunggulan karakteristik 14. Kriteria penjurusan diatur oleh : a. Direktorat teknis terkait b. Guru terkait c. Kepala sekolah d. Siswa e. Tenaga kerja tata usaha
    70. 70. 15. Kegiatan yang bertujuan memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik untuk mengembangkan dan mengekspresikan diri sesuai dengan kebutuhan ,bakat,minat, setiap peserta didik sesuai dengan kondisi sekolah, merupakan jabaran dari : a. Pengaturan bebas belajar b. Pendidikan bercakap hidup c. Kegiatan pengembangan diri d. Pendidikan berbasis keunggulan e. Pendidikan muatan lokal
    71. 71. 16.Muatan lokal dalam mata pelajaran setiap semester, dapat diselenggarakan sebanyak : a. 2 kali b. 3 kali c. 4 kali d. 1 kali e. 5 kali
    72. 72. 17. Berdasarkan PP no 19 tahun 2005 pasal 72 ayat 1, peserta didik dikatakan lulus apabila sesuai dengan pernyataan di bawah ini, kecuali : a. Menyelesaikan seluruh program pembelajaran b. Memperoleh nilai minimal baik pada penilaian akhir untuk seluruh mata pelajaran c. Lulus ujian sekolah/madrasah untuk kelompok mata pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. d. Lulus Ujian Nasional. e. Lulus Ujian Akhir Sekolah
    73. 73. 18. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan mulai diberlakukan pada tahun : a. 2005/2006 b. 2006/2007 c. 2007/2008 d. 2008/2009 e. 2009/2010 19. Berikut ini merupakan kesatuan rencana dari suatu Kurikulum, kecuali : a. Tujuan pendidikan b. Isi c. Material Pengajaran d. Penilaian e. Metode
    74. 74. 20.Di bawah ini yang merupakan tujuan umum dari diterapkannya Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan adalah : a. Meningkatkan kualitas pendidik b. Meningkatkan kinerja menteri pendidikan c. Memberikan kebebasan sekolah dalam berkembang d. Memandirikan dan memberdayakan satuan pendidikan e. Memanaskan kompetisi antar sekolah