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Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
Memahami tentang kimia
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Memahami tentang kimia

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  • 1. 05/21/07 LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY 1 INTRODUCTION TOINTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRYCHEMISTRY BYBY AHMAD NASIR SAJIAHMAD NASIR SAJI LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORYLESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
  • 2. 05/21/07 2LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY UNDERSTANDING CHEMISTRYUNDERSTANDING CHEMISTRY  SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES, COMPOSITIONSCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE PROPERTIES, COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF SUBTANCES FOUND AROUND US.AND STRUCTURE OF SUBTANCES FOUND AROUND US.  EGYPTIAN – MEANS TO EXTRACT (PROCESS) GOLD, SILVEREGYPTIAN – MEANS TO EXTRACT (PROCESS) GOLD, SILVER AND COPPER FROM EARTH.AND COPPER FROM EARTH.  GREEKS – ALCHEMY, BORROWED FROM EGYPTIAN.GREEKS – ALCHEMY, BORROWED FROM EGYPTIAN.  ARABIAN – AL-KIMI-YA, WHICH MEANS “BLACK SOIL FROMARABIAN – AL-KIMI-YA, WHICH MEANS “BLACK SOIL FROM THE NILE” – “THE KNOWLEDGE OF MATTER”THE NILE” – “THE KNOWLEDGE OF MATTER”  ENGLISH – MODIFIED ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY.ENGLISH – MODIFIED ALCHEMY TO CHEMISTRY.  ENGLISH SCIENTIST (ROBERT BOYLE, 1627-1691), WASENGLISH SCIENTIST (ROBERT BOYLE, 1627-1691), WAS FOUNDER OF MODERN CHEMISTRY WHEN HE PUBLISHED AFOUNDER OF MODERN CHEMISTRY WHEN HE PUBLISHED A BOOK “THE SCEPTICAL CHEMISTS”.BOOK “THE SCEPTICAL CHEMISTS”.  HE DESCRIBED THE PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS,HE DESCRIBED THE PROPERTIES OF ELEMENTS, COMPOUND AND MIXTURES CLEARLY.COMPOUND AND MIXTURES CLEARLY.
  • 3. 05/21/07 3LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY  THE WORLD AROUND US MADE UP OF MATTER.THE WORLD AROUND US MADE UP OF MATTER.  THE SIMPLEST OF WHICH IS TERMED ELEMENT.THE SIMPLEST OF WHICH IS TERMED ELEMENT.  116 ELEMENTS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED BY116 ELEMENTS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED BY CHEMIST. SOME BEEN CREATED BY MANCHEMIST. SOME BEEN CREATED BY MAN THROUGH TRANSMUTATIONTHROUGH TRANSMUTATION  EXAMPLE :EXAMPLE :  THE HUMAN BODY, FOOD, AIR, MEDICINES ANDTHE HUMAN BODY, FOOD, AIR, MEDICINES AND CLOTHES ARE MADE UP OF CHEMICAL SUBTANCESCLOTHES ARE MADE UP OF CHEMICAL SUBTANCES  MANY SUBTANCES ARE PRODUCED BY MANMANY SUBTANCES ARE PRODUCED BY MAN CHEMICALLY.CHEMICALLY.
  • 4. 05/21/07 4LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY  EXAMPLE :EXAMPLE : 1.1. NITRIC ACID – TO MAKE FERTILISERS ANDNITRIC ACID – TO MAKE FERTILISERS AND EXPLOSIVES.EXPLOSIVES. 2.2. SULPHURIC ACID – AS ELECTROLYTE IN ACID-LEADSULPHURIC ACID – AS ELECTROLYTE IN ACID-LEAD ACCUMULATORS AND TO MAKE DETERGENTS.ACCUMULATORS AND TO MAKE DETERGENTS. 3.3. SOAPS AND DETERGENTS – AS CLEANING AGENTS.SOAPS AND DETERGENTS – AS CLEANING AGENTS. 4.4. UREA – AS NITROGENOUS FERTILISERS.UREA – AS NITROGENOUS FERTILISERS. 5.5. POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) – TO MAKE PIPES,POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) – TO MAKE PIPES, PLASTIC BAGS AND CHILDREN’S TOYS.PLASTIC BAGS AND CHILDREN’S TOYS. 6.6. SODIUM CHLORIDE – TO PRESERVE FOODSODIUM CHLORIDE – TO PRESERVE FOOD 7.7. ACETIC ACID (VINEGAR) – TO ADD FLAVOUR TO FOODACETIC ACID (VINEGAR) – TO ADD FLAVOUR TO FOOD AND TO PRESERVE FOODAND TO PRESERVE FOOD
  • 5. 05/21/07 5LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY  EXAMPLE :EXAMPLE : 1.1. ETHANOL – TO MANUFACTUREETHANOL – TO MANUFACTURE ALCOHOLS,DRINKS,COSMETICS AND FOODALCOHOLS,DRINKS,COSMETICS AND FOOD SEASONING.SEASONING. 2.2. PAINTS AND SHELLAC – TO PROTECTPAINTS AND SHELLAC – TO PROTECT SURFACES.SURFACES. 3.3. SILVER CHLORIDE – TO MAKESILVER CHLORIDE – TO MAKE PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS.PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS. 4.4. SILVER BROMIDE – IN PHOTOGRAPHYSILVER BROMIDE – IN PHOTOGRAPHY 5.5. FORMALDEHYDE – TO PRESERVE SPECIMENSFORMALDEHYDE – TO PRESERVE SPECIMENS IN THE LABORATORYIN THE LABORATORY 6.6. SODIUM HYDROXIDE – TO MAKE SOAP ANDSODIUM HYDROXIDE – TO MAKE SOAP AND PAPERPAPER
  • 6. 05/21/07 6LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY THE IMPORTANCE CHEMISTRYTHE IMPORTANCE CHEMISTRY 1.1. OCCUPATIONOCCUPATION 2.2. INDUSTRYINDUSTRY 3.3. EDUCATIONEDUCATION
  • 7. 05/21/07 7LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY OCCUPATIONOCCUPATION SOME OF THE OCCUPATION THATSOME OF THE OCCUPATION THAT NEED THE KNOWLEDGE OF CHEMISTRY INCLUDE :NEED THE KNOWLEDGE OF CHEMISTRY INCLUDE : 1.1. DOCTORSDOCTORS 2.2. HEALTH OFFICERSHEALTH OFFICERS 3.3. DENTISTSDENTISTS 4.4. BIOCHEMISTSBIOCHEMISTS 5.5. PHARMACISTSPHARMACISTS 6.6. NUTRIONISTSNUTRIONISTS 7.7. FORENSIC SCIENTISTSFORENSIC SCIENTISTS 8.8. GEOLOGISTSGEOLOGISTS 9.9. LABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTSLABORATORY TECHNOLOGISTS 10.10. PHYSIOTHERAPISTSPHYSIOTHERAPISTS 11.11. CHEMISTSCHEMISTS
  • 8. 05/21/07 8LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY OCCUPATIONOCCUPATION 1.1. METALLURGISTSMETALLURGISTS 2.2. AGRICULTURISTSAGRICULTURISTS 3.3. GENETIC ENGINEERSGENETIC ENGINEERS 4.4. PHARMACOLOGISTSPHARMACOLOGISTS 5.5. TOXICOLOGISTSTOXICOLOGISTS 6.6. CHEMICAL ENGINEERSCHEMICAL ENGINEERS 7.7. BIOTECHNOLOGISTSBIOTECHNOLOGISTS 8.8. POLYMER SCIENTISTSPOLYMER SCIENTISTS 9.9. FOOD TECHNOLOGISTSFOOD TECHNOLOGISTS 10.10. MICROBIOLOGISTSMICROBIOLOGISTS 11.11. HAEMATOLOGISTSHAEMATOLOGISTS
  • 9. 05/21/07 9LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY OCCUPATIONOCCUPATION A FEW EXAMPLE OF OCCUPATION ANDA FEW EXAMPLE OF OCCUPATION AND THEIR APPLICATION OF CHEMISTRY :THEIR APPLICATION OF CHEMISTRY : 1.1. ECOLOGISTS – TO STUDY THE NATURE OF CHEMICALECOLOGISTS – TO STUDY THE NATURE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN SURROUNDING AND THEIR AFFECTS ON THESUBSTANCES IN SURROUNDING AND THEIR AFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT.ENVIRONMENT. 2.2. GEOCHEMIST – TO STUDY THE NATURE OF CHEMICALGEOCHEMIST – TO STUDY THE NATURE OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES ON EARTH.SUBSTANCES ON EARTH. 3.3. GENETIC ENGINEERS – THE STUDY YHE GENETIC ANDGENETIC ENGINEERS – THE STUDY YHE GENETIC AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CHROMOSOMES AND THECHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CHROMOSOMES AND THE EFFECTS OF ENGINEERING ON THEIR COMPOSITION.EFFECTS OF ENGINEERING ON THEIR COMPOSITION. 4.4. PHARMACOLOGISTS – TO STUDY AND SYNTHESISE NEWPHARMACOLOGISTS – TO STUDY AND SYNTHESISE NEW MEDICINES AND DRUGS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON VARIOUSMEDICINES AND DRUGS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON VARIOUS DISEASES.DISEASES. 5.5. BIOCHEMISTS – TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF CHEMICALBIOCHEMISTS – TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE HUMAN BODY.REACTIONS IN THE HUMAN BODY. 6.6. DOCTORS – TO TREAT DISEASES IN HUMAN BEINGS.DOCTORS – TO TREAT DISEASES IN HUMAN BEINGS.
  • 10. 05/21/07 10LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY OCCUPATIONOCCUPATION CHEMISTS ARE ALSO NEEDED :CHEMISTS ARE ALSO NEEDED : 1.1. TO STUDY THE PROCESS OFTO STUDY THE PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING DRUGS AND MEDICINES.MANUFACTURING DRUGS AND MEDICINES. 2.2. TO UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMICALTO UNDERSTANDING THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND EFFECTS OF DRUGS.STRUCTURE AND EFFECTS OF DRUGS. 3.3. TO CONDUCT STUDIES AND RESEARCH ONTO CONDUCT STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES INFERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES IN FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES INDUSTRIES.FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES INDUSTRIES. 4.4. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVESTO STUDY THE EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES AND THEIR COMPOSITIONS IN THE FOODAND THEIR COMPOSITIONS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRIESINDUSTRIES
  • 11. 05/21/07 11LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIACHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIA THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIATHE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIA INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING :INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING : 1.1. IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRYIRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY 2.2. OLEOCHEMICAL, WHICH PRODUCES VARIOUSOLEOCHEMICAL, WHICH PRODUCES VARIOUS PRODUCTS FROM PALM OIL INCLUDING SOAPS ANDPRODUCTS FROM PALM OIL INCLUDING SOAPS AND DETERGENTS.DETERGENTS. 3.3. DISTILLATE SYNTHESIS – WHICH CONVERT NATURALDISTILLATE SYNTHESIS – WHICH CONVERT NATURAL GAS TO KEROSENE AND WAX.GAS TO KEROSENE AND WAX. 4.4. RECYLING FACTORIES WHICH RECYLE PAPER,RECYLING FACTORIES WHICH RECYLE PAPER, ALUMINUM CANS AND OTHERS INTO REUSABLEALUMINUM CANS AND OTHERS INTO REUSABLE PRODUCTS.PRODUCTS.
  • 12. 05/21/07 12LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIACHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIA THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIATHE CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES IN MALAYSIA INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING :INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING : 1.1. PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS – WHICH SUPPLIESPETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS – WHICH SUPPLIES FUEL FOR HOME, VEHICLES AND INDUSTRIES.FUEL FOR HOME, VEHICLES AND INDUSTRIES. 3.3. PLASTIC INDUSTRY – WHICH PRODUCES EQUIQMENTPLASTIC INDUSTRY – WHICH PRODUCES EQUIQMENT FOR HOME NEEDS AND PARTS FOR ELECTRICALFOR HOME NEEDS AND PARTS FOR ELECTRICAL DEVICES.DEVICES. 5.5. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, WHICHAGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, WHICH PRODUCES FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES FORPRODUCES FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR.AGRICULTURAL SECTOR. 8.8. PHARMACEUTICAL – WHICH PRODUCES BOTHPHARMACEUTICAL – WHICH PRODUCES BOTH MODERN AND TRADITIONAL MEDICINES AND DRUGS.MODERN AND TRADITIONAL MEDICINES AND DRUGS.
  • 13. 05/21/07 13LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL-BASEDCONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL-BASED INDUSTRIESINDUSTRIES 1.1. HAVE IMPROVED OUR ECONOMYHAVE IMPROVED OUR ECONOMY THROUGH THE EXPORT OF VARIOUSTHROUGH THE EXPORT OF VARIOUS PRODUCTS, SUCH AS CHEMICALS, SOAPS,PRODUCTS, SUCH AS CHEMICALS, SOAPS, DETERGENTS, ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS,DETERGENTS, ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, FERTILISERS,PESTICIDES, RUBBER, OILFERTILISERS,PESTICIDES, RUBBER, OIL PALM, PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS ANDPALM, PETROLEUM, NATURAL GAS AND PETROCHEMICALS.PETROCHEMICALS. 2.2. HEPLS TO REDUCE IMPORTS, THEREBYHEPLS TO REDUCE IMPORTS, THEREBY SAVING FOREIGN EXCHANGESAVING FOREIGN EXCHANGE
  • 14. 05/21/07 14LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL-BASEDCONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL-BASED INDUSTRIESINDUSTRIES THE VARIOUS PRODUCTS OF THE CHEMICAL-BASEDTHE VARIOUS PRODUCTS OF THE CHEMICAL-BASED INDUSTRIES :INDUSTRIES : 1.1. FOOD AND BEVERAGES – FLAVOURS, ESSENCES, FOODFOOD AND BEVERAGES – FLAVOURS, ESSENCES, FOOD STABILISERS, PRESERVATIVES, SWEERENERS AND ANTI-STABILISERS, PRESERVATIVES, SWEERENERS AND ANTI- OXIDANTS.OXIDANTS. 3.3. DRUG AND MEDICINES – ANTIBIOTICS, ANALGESICS,DRUG AND MEDICINES – ANTIBIOTICS, ANALGESICS, HORMONES, VITAMINS, VACCINES AND TRADIOTIONALHORMONES, VITAMINS, VACCINES AND TRADIOTIONAL MEDICINES.MEDICINES. 5.5. AGRICULTURE – FERTILISERS, PESTICIDES, GROWTHAGRICULTURE – FERTILISERS, PESTICIDES, GROWTH HORMONES AND HERBICIDES.HORMONES AND HERBICIDES. 4.4. TELECOMMUNICATIONS – CHEMICAL CELLS, COMPOSITETELECOMMUNICATIONS – CHEMICAL CELLS, COMPOSITE MATERIAL FOR CELLPHONE, RADIO AND TELEVISIONMATERIAL FOR CELLPHONE, RADIO AND TELEVISION
  • 15. 05/21/07 15LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY CONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL-BASEDCONTRIBUTION OF CHEMICAL-BASED INDUSTRIESINDUSTRIES THE VARIOUS PRODUCTS OF THETHE VARIOUS PRODUCTS OF THE CHEMICAL-BASED INDUSTRIES :CHEMICAL-BASED INDUSTRIES : 5.5. TRANSPORT – FUEL FOR VEHICLES, ALLOYS FORTRANSPORT – FUEL FOR VEHICLES, ALLOYS FOR VEHICLE PARTS, GLASS, PLASTICS, RUBBERS ANDVEHICLE PARTS, GLASS, PLASTICS, RUBBERS AND COMPOSITE MATERIALSCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 6.6. TEXTILE – NYLON AND POLYESTER MATERIALSTEXTILE – NYLON AND POLYESTER MATERIALS 7.7. MANUFACTURE/SYNTHESIS – RAW MATERIALS SUCHMANUFACTURE/SYNTHESIS – RAW MATERIALS SUCH AS CHLORINE, SULPHURIC ACID, UREA ANDAS CHLORINE, SULPHURIC ACID, UREA AND CATALYSTS FOR VARIOUS INDUSTRIESCATALYSTS FOR VARIOUS INDUSTRIES
  • 16. 05/21/07 16LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING CHEMISTRYIMPORTANCE OF STUDYING CHEMISTRY 1.1. THE KNOWLODGE IS IMPORTANT IN MANY FIELDS OF RESEARCH SUCHTHE KNOWLODGE IS IMPORTANT IN MANY FIELDS OF RESEARCH SUCH AS MEDICINE, ENGINEERING, BIOCHEMISTRY, BOTANY,AS MEDICINE, ENGINEERING, BIOCHEMISTRY, BOTANY, PHARMACEUTICALS, GENETICA AND FORENSICS SCIENCE.PHARMACEUTICALS, GENETICA AND FORENSICS SCIENCE. 2.2. CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES OF SURROUNDING. THE AIR THAT WE BREATHECHEMICAL SUBSTANCES OF SURROUNDING. THE AIR THAT WE BREATHE IN IS COMPOSED OF OXYGEN, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE. THEIN IS COMPOSED OF OXYGEN, NITROGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE. THE CEMENTS, CONCRETE,IRON, STEEL, WOOD, GLASS AND TILES WHICHCEMENTS, CONCRETE,IRON, STEEL, WOOD, GLASS AND TILES WHICH ARE USED TO BUILD OUR HOME AND SCHOOL.ARE USED TO BUILD OUR HOME AND SCHOOL. 3.3. THE KNOWLEDGE IS NEEDED TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF FOOD ANDTHE KNOWLEDGE IS NEEDED TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF FOOD AND MEDICAL DRUGS TO MORE BETTER THE QUALITY OF LIFE. FERTILISER,MEDICAL DRUGS TO MORE BETTER THE QUALITY OF LIFE. FERTILISER, PESTICIDES AND GROWTH HORMONES TO IMPROVE AGRICULTURALPESTICIDES AND GROWTH HORMONES TO IMPROVE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. PRESERVATIVES PREVENT PROCESSED FOOFSTUFF FROMPRODUCTS. PRESERVATIVES PREVENT PROCESSED FOOFSTUFF FROM DECOMPOSITION. MODERN DRUGS USED TO TREAT DISEASES.DECOMPOSITION. MODERN DRUGS USED TO TREAT DISEASES. 4.4. TO HELPFUL IN THE CONVERSATION OF OUR ENVIRONMENT SUCH ASTO HELPFUL IN THE CONVERSATION OF OUR ENVIRONMENT SUCH AS RECYLING PAPER AND OTHER WASTE MATERIALS AND DISPOSAL OFRECYLING PAPER AND OTHER WASTE MATERIALS AND DISPOSAL OF HARMFUL WASTES FROM FACTORIESHARMFUL WASTES FROM FACTORIES
  • 17. 05/21/07 17LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 1.1. CHEMISTRY INVOLVES INVESTIGATION THROUGH SCIENTIFIC MEAN.CHEMISTRY INVOLVES INVESTIGATION THROUGH SCIENTIFIC MEAN. THE BASIC RESEARCH SKILLS CALLED SCIENTIFIC METHOD.THE BASIC RESEARCH SKILLS CALLED SCIENTIFIC METHOD. 3.3. A SERIES OF SYSTEMATIC STEPS WHICH SCIENTISTS PRACTISE WHENA SERIES OF SYSTEMATIC STEPS WHICH SCIENTISTS PRACTISE WHEN CONDUCTING A STUDY IN PARTICULAR SITUATION.CONDUCTING A STUDY IN PARTICULAR SITUATION. 5.5. A SCIENTIFIC STEPS :A SCIENTIFIC STEPS : 1.1. OBSERVATIONOBSERVATION 2.2. INFERENCEINFERENCE 3.3. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMIDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM 4.4. IDENTIFYING THE VARIABLESIDENTIFYING THE VARIABLES 5.5. FORMING A HYPOTHESISFORMING A HYPOTHESIS 6.6. CONTROLLING THE VARIABLESCONTROLLING THE VARIABLES 7.7. PLANNING THE INVESTIGATION PROCEDURESPLANNING THE INVESTIGATION PROCEDURES 8.8. COLLECTING DATACOLLECTING DATA 9.9. INTERPRETING DATAINTERPRETING DATA 10.10. DRAWING A CONCLUSIONDRAWING A CONCLUSION 11.11. WRITING A REPORTWRITING A REPORT
  • 18. 05/21/07 18LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD SITUATION :SITUATION : You are required to study the solubility of calciumYou are required to study the solubility of calcium chloride, CaClchloride, CaCl22 , in water. You are given 10 cm, in water. You are given 10 cm33 waterwater and 100 g CaCland 100 g CaCl22 . After adding the salt, little by little. After adding the salt, little by little to the water and stirring it, you find some saltto the water and stirring it, you find some salt remaining at the bottom of the beaker. If more waterremaining at the bottom of the beaker. If more water is added, the salt dissolves.is added, the salt dissolves.
  • 19. 05/21/07 19LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 1.1. OBSERVATIONOBSERVATION ANY CHANGES IN COLOUR, SOLUBILITYANY CHANGES IN COLOUR, SOLUBILITY FORMATION OF NEW SUBSTANCES, SEENFORMATION OF NEW SUBSTANCES, SEEN DURING THE EXPERIMENT.DURING THE EXPERIMENT.
  • 20. 05/21/07 20LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 2.2. MAKING AND INFERENCEMAKING AND INFERENCE THE INITIAL CONCLUSION THAT ISTHE INITIAL CONCLUSION THAT IS MADE, BASED ON THE OBSERVATION ATMADE, BASED ON THE OBSERVATION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE SCIENTIFICTHE BEGINNING OF THE SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION.INVESTIGATION.
  • 21. 05/21/07 21LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 4.4. IDENTIFYING THE VARIABLESIDENTIFYING THE VARIABLES VARIABLES ARE FACTORS OR CONDITIONSVARIABLES ARE FACTORS OR CONDITIONS WHICH INFLUENCE OTHER FACTORS IN ANWHICH INFLUENCE OTHER FACTORS IN AN INVESTIGATION. ALLINVESTIGATION. ALL 3 TYPES :3 TYPES : 1.1. MANIPULATEDMANIPULATED (INDEPENDENT)– THE VARIABLE(INDEPENDENT)– THE VARIABLE THAT IS DELIBERATELY ALTERED TO SEE HOWTHAT IS DELIBERATELY ALTERED TO SEE HOW SUCH CHANGES AFFECT THE QUANTITY ORSUCH CHANGES AFFECT THE QUANTITY OR FACTOR.FACTOR.
  • 22. 05/21/07 22LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 2.2.RESPONDSRESPONDS (DEPENDENT) – WHICH(DEPENDENT) – WHICH CHANGES AS A RESULT OF VARIABLECHANGES AS A RESULT OF VARIABLE THAT IS MANIPULATED.THAT IS MANIPULATED. 3.3. CONSTANTCONSTANT – THE FACTOR OR– THE FACTOR OR CONDITION OR QUANTITY THATCONDITION OR QUANTITY THAT REMAINS UNCHANGED THROUGHOUTREMAINS UNCHANGED THROUGHOUT THE INVESTIGATION.THE INVESTIGATION.
  • 23. 05/21/07 23LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 5.5. FORMING A HYPOTHESISFORMING A HYPOTHESIS A GENERAL STATEMENT THATA GENERAL STATEMENT THAT STATES THE CORRELATIONSTATES THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RESPONDINGBETWEEN THE RESPONDING VARIABLE AND THE MANIPULATEDVARIABLE AND THE MANIPULATED VARIABLE.VARIABLE.
  • 24. 05/21/07 24LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 6.6. CONTROLLING THE VARIABLESCONTROLLING THE VARIABLES THE VARIABLE THAT IS BEINGTHE VARIABLE THAT IS BEING STUDIED AND THE NUMBER OFSTUDIED AND THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE EXPERIMENT ISTIMES THE EXPERIMENT IS REPEATED IN ORDER TO OBTAINREPEATED IN ORDER TO OBTAIN AUTHENTIC OR GENUINE RESULT.AUTHENTIC OR GENUINE RESULT.
  • 25. 05/21/07 25LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 7.7. PLANNING THE INVESTIGATIONPLANNING THE INVESTIGATION PROCEDURESPROCEDURES THIS INCLUDES :THIS INCLUDES : A.A. DETERMINING AND PREPARING THEDETERMINING AND PREPARING THE APPARATUS AND MATERIALS REQUIRED FORAPPARATUS AND MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR THE EXPERIMENT.THE EXPERIMENT. B.B. STATING THE PROCEDURES OR STEP TAKENSTATING THE PROCEDURES OR STEP TAKEN TO CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT IS DONETO CONDUCT THE EXPERIMENT IS DONE CORRECTLY.CORRECTLY. C.C. THE METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA, OFTHE METHOD OF COLLECTING DATA, OF PRESENTING DATA AND INTERPRETINGPRESENTING DATA AND INTERPRETING DATA.DATA.
  • 26. 05/21/07 26LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 8.8. COLLECTING DATACOLLECTING DATA ALL DATA COLLECTED THROUGHALL DATA COLLECTED THROUGH THE OBSERVATION MADE DURINGTHE OBSERVATION MADE DURING THE EXPERIMENT SHOULD BETHE EXPERIMENT SHOULD BE RECORDED ACCURATELY IN THERECORDED ACCURATELY IN THE FORM TABLES OR IN THE WORDS.FORM TABLES OR IN THE WORDS.
  • 27. 05/21/07 27LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 9.9. INTERPRETING DATAINTERPRETING DATA THE DATA COLLECTED SHOULD BETHE DATA COLLECTED SHOULD BE CHANGED AND PRESENTED IN ACHANGED AND PRESENTED IN A MORE MEANINGFUL WAY SO THATMORE MEANINGFUL WAY SO THAT THEY ARE EASILY INTERPRETED.THEY ARE EASILY INTERPRETED.
  • 28. 05/21/07 28LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 10.10. DRAWING CONCLUSIONDRAWING CONCLUSION AFTER EXAMANING ANDAFTER EXAMANING AND INTERPRETING THE DATA , AINTERPRETING THE DATA , A CONCLUDING STATEMENT IS MADECONCLUDING STATEMENT IS MADE ON THE RESULTS OF THEON THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENT. THE HYPOTHESIS ISEXPERIMENT. THE HYPOTHESIS IS THE ACCEPTED AS TRUE ORTHE ACCEPTED AS TRUE OR REJECTED AS INCORRECT.REJECTED AS INCORRECT.
  • 29. 05/21/07 29LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD 11.11. WRITING A REPORTWRITING A REPORT A COMPLETE REPORT IS WRITTEN WHEREA COMPLETE REPORT IS WRITTEN WHERE ALL THE FOLLOWING ARE PRESENTED:ALL THE FOLLOWING ARE PRESENTED:  STATEMENT OF PROBLEMSTATEMENT OF PROBLEM  HYPOTHESISHYPOTHESIS  VARIABLES (ALL THREE)VARIABLES (ALL THREE)  APPARATUS USEDAPPARATUS USED  MATERIAL USED WITH THEIR QUANTITIESMATERIAL USED WITH THEIR QUANTITIES  PROCEDUREPROCEDURE  RESULTS AND DATARESULTS AND DATA  ANALYSIS OF THE DATAANALYSIS OF THE DATA  INTERPRETATION OF THE DATAINTERPRETATION OF THE DATA  DISCUSSION OF THE DATADISCUSSION OF THE DATA  CONCLUSION AND STATEMENT ON HYPOTHESISCONCLUSION AND STATEMENT ON HYPOTHESIS
  • 30. 05/21/07 30LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD SHOULD BE OBSERVEDSCIENTIFIC METHOD SHOULD BE OBSERVED WHEN CONDUCTING AN EXPERIMENT IN ORDERWHEN CONDUCTING AN EXPERIMENT IN ORDER TO ENSURE :TO ENSURE : 1.1. VALID AND AUTHENTIC INFORMATION.VALID AND AUTHENTIC INFORMATION. 2.2. A HYPOTHESIS IN INVESTIGATED IN DETAIL.A HYPOTHESIS IN INVESTIGATED IN DETAIL. 3.3. THE EXPERIMENT IS CONDUCTED SYSTEMATICALLYTHE EXPERIMENT IS CONDUCTED SYSTEMATICALLY AND ACCORDING TO THE PROCEDURES.AND ACCORDING TO THE PROCEDURES. 4.4. ACCURATE RESULTS ARE OBTAINED.ACCURATE RESULTS ARE OBTAINED. 5.5. AN ACCEPTABLE AND VALID CONCLUSIONAN ACCEPTABLE AND VALID CONCLUSION
  • 31. 05/21/07 31LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD THE MANIPULATING SKILL LEARNT DURING ATHE MANIPULATING SKILL LEARNT DURING A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION :SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION : 1.1. USING AND HANDLING SCIENCE APPARATUS ANDUSING AND HANDLING SCIENCE APPARATUS AND MATERIAL CORRECTLY AND SAFETY.MATERIAL CORRECTLY AND SAFETY. 2.2. DRAWING APPARATUS AND LABORATORYDRAWING APPARATUS AND LABORATORY SUBSTANCES ACCURATELY.SUBSTANCES ACCURATELY. 3.3. CLEANING SCIENCE APPARATUS CORRECTLY.CLEANING SCIENCE APPARATUS CORRECTLY. 4.4. STORING SCIENCE APPARATUS AND MATERIALSSTORING SCIENCE APPARATUS AND MATERIALS CORRECTLY AND SAFETY.CORRECTLY AND SAFETY.
  • 32. 05/21/07 32LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SCIENTIFIC METHODSCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES ARESCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES ARE NECESSARY :NECESSARY : 1.1. PREVENT ACCIDENT FROM OCCURING.PREVENT ACCIDENT FROM OCCURING. 2.2. ENSURE A CLEAN AND CALM ATMOSPHERE IN THEENSURE A CLEAN AND CALM ATMOSPHERE IN THE LABORATORY.LABORATORY. 3.3. INCULCATION POSITIVE VALUES LIKE CURIOSITY,INCULCATION POSITIVE VALUES LIKE CURIOSITY, HONESTY, COOPERATIVE, PERSEVERANCE ANDHONESTY, COOPERATIVE, PERSEVERANCE AND REPONSIBILITY IN STUDENTS.REPONSIBILITY IN STUDENTS.
  • 33. 05/21/07 33LESTARI CHEMISTRY LABORATORY CONCEPT MAPCONCEPT MAP INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY UNDERSTANDING CHEMISTRY SCIENTIFIC METHODS Origin of the word Uses Occupation Chemical Industries Contribution to development Procedures Scientific attitudes

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