NarissaKunkudatharn 9B Orange House Purging polio Polio or poliomyelitis is a highly contagious viral disease that strikes the nervous systemand attacks groups of muscles and may cause paralysis or even death. Polio can besymptomatic that it is demonstrating symptoms or asymptomatic that is without displayingobvious symptoms. When it is symptomatic, the symptoms are flu like such as, fever, soar throat,headache, stiffness and fatigue. However, 95% of infections are asymptomatic. This disease isalso very contagious and spreads through person to person contact. The virus entersenvironment through feces on an infected person and enters the body through the mouth, viacontaminated food or water. Direct contact with an infected person also causes the disease.After the virus enters the mouth it multiplies rapidly in the throat and intestinal tract afterwhich it is spread through the blood and lymphatic system. The “Polio Incubation Period” or thetime between transmission and the start of symptoms can range from few days to as long as 35days. Since the polio virus is contagious and incurable, polio vaccines are crucial to minimizepossible risks. Though there is more than one vaccine to prevent polio available, IPV orInactivated Polio Vaccine was the first vaccine developed to prevent this life threateninginfection. The IPV or Inactivated Polio Vaccine is commonly administered in the West. The vaccinecontains an inactive or dead form of polio virus. Small doses not large enough to cause thedisease are injected into a body, forcing the immune system to develop blood cells that can fightthe disease. This creates immunity against the polio virus. This IPV vaccine developed by Dr.Jonas Salk in 1955, has been effective in 99% of the cases where recipients have received allthree recommended doses. This vaccine has also significantly reduced the rates of polio in mostparts of the world and has almost eradicated it in the West. Most people who received thevaccine do not develop side effects, but in the rare cases that they do mild effects such asirritability, tiredness, tenderness and loss of appetite may occur. Severe side effects rarely occur,but some recipients may suffer allergic reactions such as difficulty in breathing, wheezing, hives,fever and weakness. Between the two vaccinations that are able to fight polio that is IPV and OPV (Oral PolioVaccine), polio cases have decreased by more than 99% since 1988. This has occurred becauseof a massive global effort to eradicate this disease. As a result of this effort, polio is almostcompletely eradicated in North America, while only four countries in the world in Asia and Africathat is Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Nigeria still report polio cases as of 2011. The greatestobstacle to polio eradication in these countries is lack of basic health infrastructure, politicalpressure, and technical issues with the vaccine. A lot of people in these countries are inalliterateand poor and do not understand the importance of the vaccine. Furthermore, the politicalsystems in these countries are complicated and there is no help from local governments.
NarissaKunkudatharn 9B Orange House On the other hand, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative launched by WHO, US Center’s for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), work with the governments of countries effected by polio, private foundations such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, donor governments, humanitarian and NGO’s such as Red Cross as well as pharmaceutical companies such as Sanofi Pasteur to launch mass immunization campaigns to make sure every child in the world receives the vaccine so that the goal of having a polio free world can be reached. It is essential that this initiative be successful since polio has transmitted from these countries to nearby countries. This has forced polio free countries to take steps to protect themselves. Therefore, since there is plenty of vaccine supplies, increased understanding and funding for the vaccine, having governments that cooperate at every level will allow the world to become a polio free case. By: NarissaKUnkudatharn BIBLIOGRAPHY Citation added:"Polio Vaccine Questions and Answers." Vaccine Information for the Public and Health Professionals.Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.vaccineinformation.org/polio/qandavax.asp>. Citation added:"Poliomyelitis - PubMed Health." Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002375/>. Citation added:"Polio." KidsHealth - the Webs Most Visited Site about Childrens Health.Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://kidshealth.org/parent/infections/bacterial_viral/polio.html>. Citation added:"WHO | Poliomyelitis."Web. 01 Dec. 2011. <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs114/en/>. Citation added:"Polio Vaccine." VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT. 11 Aug. 2011. Web. 1 Dec. 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-ipv.pdf>