It’s hard to determine the
beginning of the Jewish settlement
in Częstochowa, however
propably the first Jews appeared
here about 1700. Probably, during
the reign of King Stanislaus
Poniatowski, the Jews were
already marking their presence in
Czestochowa. There is
information that in 1765 in the city
there lived 51 jewish families, that
worked as traders.
Synagogue, The Wilson Street
Synagogue, The Nadrzeczna Street
Before the World War II the Jews
were 20% of residents(population)
The situation of the Jews started to improve after 1793,
when the city became part of the Prussian partition. In
1798 an independent Jewish community and a year
later there was established the Jewish cemetery in the
city. In 1806 a Jewish school was opened. In 1827,
the first Jewish factories appeared. Poor Jews from the
surrounding villages began arriving to the city in search
of jobs. They had no legal right to live in Częstochowa
and lived in fear of deportation. In 1828, David
Gutenberg opened first Jewish manufacture in
Czestochowa. Hertz Chairman of the kahal resisted
the efforts of progressive Con Częstochowa Jews
seeking to open a private Jewish school. Many of the
richest Jews had high level of education, acquired in
the western universities. Jews living in Czestochowa
wanted to perform progressive reforms in the city. In
1841, in Czestochowa, there were many Jewish
weaving workshops, which employed about 200
journeymen. In most of the foremen were German
Jews. They automatically exerted a strong influence on
the local culture. Richer Jews called themselves "the
locals", as opposed to the poor who were called
"strangers". It caused that many Jews emigrated in
search of work to other cities.
The Old Market
The New Market
The Frank’s House
The New Market– afar off is Jasna Góra Monastery
In the 50s of the nineteenth century there were built
two spoons factory, a printing factory, a match factory,
a metal products factory, a hosiery factory, paper
mills, textile plants. Around the factories Jewish
department stores, agencies, magazines
Czestochowa Jewish community was highly diverse.
Social and financial wealth of the family could be
easily identified by
their place of residence.
The Old Synagouge
During the January Uprising, September 8, 1862 in Czestochowa there was a patriotic
demonstration, attended by Poles and Jews, calling together to throw off the Russian
yoke. As a result, tsarist colonel gave the order to plunder and burn the Old Town.
The development of industry in Czestochowa caused the city in increasing numbers flocked
Jews from surrounding towns and villages .. Most of the Jews were engaged in commerce or
worked in industry or finance.
In the city there were Jewish schools.
In 1912, in Czestochowa they began
to publish a newspaper in Yiddish
The first local Jewish newspaper
was released in 1914
In the years 1899-1909 the New Synagogue
was built at. Wilson 16.
End of World War I brought the rebirth of
the Polish state.
City Czestochowa entered the Polish part.
The Jews of Częstochowa had a great hope
in the reborn Polish state
However, in 1919, in Czestochowa there occured anti-Jewish riots .
Tzaddik Yitzhak Meir Justman became the head of the Hasidic community
In 1935 in Czestochowa worked a lot of Jewish workshops - they
completely dominated the textile industry, leather and
foodstuffs. Also, half of the shops in the town was Jewish.
Częstochowa Jews were also very active in cultural and social.
On 21 February 1937, the Polish political organization Camp of
National Unity announced its declaration, which was antiJewish. The signs of this were, among others, the facts that the
Jews were not allowed to be members of the organization and
an open call for a boycott of Jewish trade.
June 19, 1937, in Czestochowa, there was a pogrom of Jews.
Polish nationalist militias destructed Jewish shops, workshops
and housing, pillaging and destroyed private property. State
police behaved at the same passivity. As a result of the pogrom,
some Jews were wounded, and a lot of Jewish families suffered
damage. Vandalized shops, apartments and a synagogue was
set on fire.
The Jewish Star
Jewish national minority is living among us and still
continues in their culture and tradition.