THE JEWS IN CZĘSTOCHOWA BEFORE
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
JEWISH POPULATION
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0
1806

1827

1840

1857

1862

1900

1921

1939
It’s hard to determine the
beginning of the Jewish settlement
in Częstochowa, however
propably the first Jews appeared
her...
The situation of the Jews started to improve after 1793,
when the city became part of the Prussian partition. In
1798 an i...
The Old Market
The New Market

The Frank’s House

The New Market– afar off is Jasna Góra Monastery
In the 50s of the nineteenth century there were built
two spoons factory, a printing factory, a match factory,
a metal pro...
During the January Uprising, September 8, 1862 in Czestochowa there was a patriotic
demonstration, attended by Poles and J...
However, in 1919, in Czestochowa there occured anti-Jewish riots .
Tzaddik Yitzhak Meir Justman became the head of the Has...
In 1935 in Czestochowa worked a lot of Jewish workshops - they
completely dominated the textile industry, leather and
food...
The Jewish Star

Jewish national minority is living among us and still
continues in their culture and tradition.

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Jews before world war ii, k. chabinska, l.kokot

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Jews before world war ii, k. chabinska, l.kokot

  1. 1. THE JEWS IN CZĘSTOCHOWA BEFORE THE SECOND WORLD WAR
  2. 2. JEWISH POPULATION 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1806 1827 1840 1857 1862 1900 1921 1939
  3. 3. It’s hard to determine the beginning of the Jewish settlement in Częstochowa, however propably the first Jews appeared here about 1700. Probably, during the reign of King Stanislaus Poniatowski, the Jews were already marking their presence in Czestochowa. There is information that in 1765 in the city there lived 51 jewish families, that worked as traders. Synagogue, The Wilson Street Synagogue, The Nadrzeczna Street Before the World War II the Jews were 20% of residents(population) of Częstochowa. Israelite Hospital
  4. 4. The situation of the Jews started to improve after 1793, when the city became part of the Prussian partition. In 1798 an independent Jewish community and a year later there was established the Jewish cemetery in the city. In 1806 a Jewish school was opened. In 1827, the first Jewish factories appeared. Poor Jews from the surrounding villages began arriving to the city in search of jobs. They had no legal right to live in Częstochowa and lived in fear of deportation. In 1828, David Gutenberg opened first Jewish manufacture in Czestochowa. Hertz Chairman of the kahal resisted the efforts of progressive Con Częstochowa Jews seeking to open a private Jewish school. Many of the richest Jews had high level of education, acquired in the western universities. Jews living in Czestochowa wanted to perform progressive reforms in the city. In 1841, in Czestochowa, there were many Jewish weaving workshops, which employed about 200 journeymen. In most of the foremen were German Jews. They automatically exerted a strong influence on the local culture. Richer Jews called themselves "the locals", as opposed to the poor who were called "strangers". It caused that many Jews emigrated in search of work to other cities.
  5. 5. The Old Market The New Market The Frank’s House The New Market– afar off is Jasna Góra Monastery
  6. 6. In the 50s of the nineteenth century there were built two spoons factory, a printing factory, a match factory, a metal products factory, a hosiery factory, paper mills, textile plants. Around the factories Jewish department stores, agencies, magazines mushroomed. Czestochowa Jewish community was highly diverse. Social and financial wealth of the family could be easily identified by their place of residence. The Old Synagouge
  7. 7. During the January Uprising, September 8, 1862 in Czestochowa there was a patriotic demonstration, attended by Poles and Jews, calling together to throw off the Russian yoke. As a result, tsarist colonel gave the order to plunder and burn the Old Town. The development of industry in Czestochowa caused the city in increasing numbers flocked Jews from surrounding towns and villages .. Most of the Jews were engaged in commerce or worked in industry or finance. In the city there were Jewish schools. In 1912, in Czestochowa they began to publish a newspaper in Yiddish "Reklamen Deck". The first local Jewish newspaper "Czenstochower Tageblat" was released in 1914 In the years 1899-1909 the New Synagogue was built at. Wilson 16. End of World War I brought the rebirth of the Polish state. City Czestochowa entered the Polish part. The Jews of Częstochowa had a great hope in the reborn Polish state
  8. 8. However, in 1919, in Czestochowa there occured anti-Jewish riots . Tzaddik Yitzhak Meir Justman became the head of the Hasidic community in Czestochowa
  9. 9. In 1935 in Czestochowa worked a lot of Jewish workshops - they completely dominated the textile industry, leather and foodstuffs. Also, half of the shops in the town was Jewish. Częstochowa Jews were also very active in cultural and social. On 21 February 1937, the Polish political organization Camp of National Unity announced its declaration, which was antiJewish. The signs of this were, among others, the facts that the Jews were not allowed to be members of the organization and an open call for a boycott of Jewish trade. June 19, 1937, in Czestochowa, there was a pogrom of Jews. Polish nationalist militias destructed Jewish shops, workshops and housing, pillaging and destroyed private property. State police behaved at the same passivity. As a result of the pogrom, some Jews were wounded, and a lot of Jewish families suffered damage. Vandalized shops, apartments and a synagogue was set on fire.
  10. 10. The Jewish Star Jewish national minority is living among us and still continues in their culture and tradition. Menora

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