Amygdala - James, Daniel, Ludvig, and Callan


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Amygdala - James, Daniel, Ludvig, and Callan

  2. 2. LOCATION OF THE AMYGDALA Deep within temporal lobe Directly next to the HIppocampus
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS OF THE AMYGDALA emotional and social processing linked to both pleasure and fear responses. Processes and stores emotional events. also involved with present emotional responses. necessary to feel certain emotions and to perceive them in others (Fear is very closely linked with amygdala functions). stores horrifying events in our memory, so that the next time we think of the same incident, it appears vividly in our minds and results in shivering of the body and other reactions of fear. It is the modulation of aggression Can be linked with anxiety (effect differs depending on sexes)
  4. 4. ABNORMALITIES IN THE AMYGDALA Abnormalities of the amygdala can result in dramatic changes of our emotional responses. Damage, neurotransmitter imbalance, or developmental problems are all sources of an abnormal functioning of the amygdala. Abnormalities can result in: Loss of Fear Responses violent psychopathic behavior Bipolar Disorder Autism, Phobias, PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression.
  5. 5. WILLIAMS SYNDROME missing 21 genes on chromosome seven and are shown to be highly social and empathetic, even in situations that would normally cause fear or anxiety in people. The study compared the brain imaging of people with williams syndrome and people without it. participants were shown pictures of angry and fearful faces, which in normally functioning brains, strongly activate the amygdala The fMRI showed much less activity of the amygdala in participants with WIlliams Syndrome.
  6. 6. WILLIAMS SYNDROME AFterwards, researchers showed the participants pictures of threatening scenes (a burning building or a plane crash) which did not have any people or faces in them In contrast to the responses to facial expressions, the participants with williams syndrome showed strong response in the amygdala this showed that the amygdala still functioned, but just abnormally.
  7. 7. WOMAN WITHOUT FEAR “DANIEL TRANEL” Method: 20 years observed and recorded patients responses Exposure to snakes and spiders (most commonly feared animals) World’s scariest haunted houses Series of horror films measured experience with fear Standardized questionaries Probing multiple aspects of fear (fear of death to fear of public speaking three month period, computerized emotion diary, randomly rate her current fear level Failed to experience fear (even during traumatic and life threatening events)
  8. 8. WOMAN WITHOUT FEAR “DANIEL TRANEL” Possibly lead to invention for PTSD and other related anxiety disorders Patient cannot experience fear Knows what fear is and can distinguish logic Still doesn’t “mind” being in harms way Cannot recognize fear in facial expressions Unable to penetrate her emotional core (cannot be scarred or traumatized) Patient hated spiders and snakes, tried to avoid (not scared) When exposed, was curious and not scared Lacks adrenaline rushes due to no fear hard to know that scenarios are painful
  9. 9. WOMAN WITHOUT FEAR “DANIEL TRANEL” However Inhaling carbon dioxide 35% led to extreme panic attack Immense fear and desperation Stating “worst feeling ever” Carbon affected interceptive receptors, directly to the brainstem (underline fear and panic) Scary films, animals, danger (external) exteroceptive (visual and auditory pathways Stimuli doesn’t induce state of fear for her
  10. 10. AMYGDALA’S ROLE IN MEMORY CONSOLATION “EMILY L. MALIN AND JAMES L. MCGAUGH” The study In the study, the rats were placed inside a box to familiarize themselves with that context. On the second day, they were confined to a dark compartment of the same box for only a few seconds and given a mild foot shock. The drug oxotremorine, which mimics the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain and enhances memory retention, was injected into the hippocampus, the anterior cingulate cortex or the amygdala immediately after either the contextual training on day one or after the foot-shock training on day two. All the rats were then tested two days later to see how quickly they would return to the chamber where they had received the foot shock, an indication of how well they remembered the previous training. The results The rats with injections in the amygdala showed better memory retention regardless of whether they had received the drug after the context training or the foot-shock training. The results support the hypothesis that the amygdala is involved in overall consolidation of memories of different kinds of experiences.
  11. 11. STATE OF FEAR SYMPTOMS - Sweaty Palms - Nervous Ticks - Increase in thoughts and Mind Racing - Screaming, yelling or inability to do these things - Immobility or paralysis -Hives or skin rashes, skin conditions -Difficulty breathing -Racing or pounding heart -Chest pain or tightness -Feeling dizzy or lightheaded -Trembling or shaking -A churning stomach -Hot or cold flashes; tingling sensations -Sweating -Feeling of overwhelming anxiety or panic -Feeling an intense need to escape -Feeling “unreal” or detached from yourself -Fear of losing control or going crazy -Feeling like you’re going to die or pass out -Knowing that you’re overreacting, but feeling powerless to control your fear
  12. 12. STATE OF FEAR SYMPTOMS - Paralyzed (conversion disorder or - Breathing more rapid and shallow - Increase in blood pressure hysterical paralysis) - Increase in pulse rate - Wide Eyes - Raised Eyebrows - Dilated Pupils - Flared Nostrils - Dry Mouth - Clenched Mouth - Body hair standing on end - Larger personal space - Tense and energized muscles - Slouching or hunching to minimize their exposure - Taller or squared shoulders as in an aggressive response - Feet may be pointed to locate a way out - Increased perspiration of the situation - Crossed arms and hands - Digestive and Immune systems slow - Drumming of fingers down - Fidgeting - Trembling and shaking - Rapid Breathing - Peristalsis reduced - Shaking or tapping legs - Increased glycogen to glucose conversion - Norepinephrine and epinephrine secreted
  13. 13. INTERESTING FACTS Current evidence suggests possible correlations between brain structure, differences in hemispheric ratios and connection patters in the amygdala, and sexual orientation. Homosexual men tend to exhibit a more female-like pattern in the amygdala then heterosexual males do, homosexual females tend to show more male like patters in the amygdala than heterosexual women do. During consolidation, memory can be modulated emotional arousal following learning activity influences memory strength Subjects with Larger amygdalae have larger and more complex social networks and are able to make accurate social judgements