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Dna fingerprinting- Logan Briggs
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Dna fingerprinting- Logan Briggs

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dna fingerprinting

dna fingerprinting

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  • 1. DNA Fingerprinting By Logan Briggs
  • 2. Step 1• Obtain DNA sample for use• If sample is too small, replicate using PCR (polymerase chain reaction)• This is a process that uses the heating and cooling of DNA with added primers, polymerase, and nitrogen bases to exponentially replicate DNA
  • 3. Step 2• Add restriction enzymes to cut DNA into specific genes and loading dye to weigh down and make the DNA visible
  • 4. Step 3• Add DNA to gel at negative end in wells• Run an electric current through the gel• DNA will separate out into bands in the gel• This is called gel electrophoresis
  • 5. Why does this happen?• The DNA is negatively charged, so when it is placed in the gel and an electric current is run through it, it will migrate from the negative end where it is placed to the positive end. The bands are formed from the different lengths of DNA, as cut by the enzymes. The larger pieces won’t move as far through the gel, but smaller pieces will, thus forming bands
  • 6. Step 5• Move to nylon membrane• Coat membrane with gene specific radioactive probes• Transfer DNA from gel to membrane• Radioactive probes attach to certain parts of DNA
  • 7. Why does this happen?• During the gel electrophoresis, the hydrogen bonds in the DNA are broken, making it single stranded• The single stranded probes bond to the complimentary DNA
  • 8. Step 6• Expose X-Ray film to membrane• Band pattern from probes will show up. This is the DNA fingerprint
  • 9. DNA fingerprinting uses• Identifying criminals from evidence at crime scenes• Determining if certain traits or diseases are being passed down genetically• Determining if two animals should breed together• Tracking paths and origins of diseases
  • 10. Special advantages• Not having to sequence entire DNA• Being able to identify someone’s DNA quickly using only a few genes, but it still being a 1 in 100 billion chance of two people having same DNA fingerprint• Very accurate
  • 11. The future?• Being able to use smaller amounts of DNA; not having to waste as much time copying it• Being able to do it faster• Using it for medical matches, such as organ donors