Topics To be Covered
What is Energy Conservation?
Energy Conservation in Different areas
Power generation, transmission & distribution sector
Case study: Cement Industry
What is Energy Conservation?
Energy Conservation and Energy Efficiency are separate, but
Energy conservation is achieved when growth of energy
consumption is reduced, measured in physical terms. Energy
Conservation can, therefore, be the result of several processes or
developments, such as productivity increase or technological
On the other hand Energy efficiency is achieved when energy
intensity in a specific product, process or area of production or
consumption is reduced without affecting output, consumption or
Promotion of energy efficiency will contribute to energy
conservation and is therefore an integral part of energy conservation
Thermal Energy Conservation in industry
Undertake regular energy audits.
Plug all oil leakage. Leakage of one drop of oil per second amounts to
a loss of over 2000 liters/year.
Filter oil in stages. Impurities in oil affect combustion.
Pre-heat the oil. For proper combustion, oil should be at right viscosity
at the burner tip. Provide adequate Pre-heat capacity.
Incomplete combustion leads to wastage of fuel. Observe the colour of
smoke emitted from chimney. Black smoke indicates improper
combustion and fuel wastage. White smoke indicates excess air &
hence loss of heat. Hazy brown smoke indicates proper combustion.
Use of Low air pressure “film burners” helps save oil upto 15% in
Recover & utilize waste heat from furnace flue gas for preheating of
combustion air. Every 21 0C rise in combustion air temperature results
in 1% fuel oil savings.
Control excess air in furnaces. A 10% drop in excess air amounts to 1%
saving of fuel in furnaces. For an annual consumption of 3000 kl. of
furnace oil. This means a saving of Rs 3 Lacs. (Cost of furnace oil-Rs.
10 per litre).
Reduce heat losses through furnace openings. Observations show that a
furnace operating at a temperature of 1000 0C having an open door
(1500mm*750mm) results in a fuel loss of 10 lit/hr. For a 4000 hrs.
furnace operation this translates into a loss of approx. Rs. 4 Lacs per
Recover heat from steam condense. For every 60C rise in boiler
feed water temperature through condense return, there is 1% saving
Improve boiler efficiency. Boilers should be monitored for flue gas
losses, radiation losses, incomplete combustion, blow down losses,
excess air etc. Proper control can decrease the consumption upto
Use only treated water in boilers. A scale formation of 1mm
thickness on the waterside would increase fuel consumption by 5-
Stop steam leakage. Steam leakage from a 3 mm-diameter hole on
a pipeline carrying steam at 7kg/cm2 would waste 32 kl of fuel oil
per year amounting to a loss of Rs. 3 Lacs.
Maintain steam pipe insulation.
Electrical Energy Conservation in industry
Improve power factor by installing capacitors to reduce KVA
demand charges and also line losses within plant.
Improvement of power factor from 0.85 to 0.96 will give 11.5%
reduction of peak KVA and 21.6% reduction in peak losses. This
corresponds to 14.5% reduction in average losses for a load factor
Avoid repeated rewinding of motors. Observations show that
rewound motors practically have an efficiency loss of upto 5%.
This is mainly due to increase in no load losses. Hence use such
rewound motors on low duty cycle applications only.
Use of variable frequency drives, slip power recovery systems and
fluid couplings for variable speed applications such as fans, pumps
etc. helps in minimizing consumption.
Use of electronic ballast in place of conventional choke saves
energy upto 20%.
Use of CFL in place of GLS lamp can save energy upto 70%.
Clean the lamps & fixtures regularly. Illumination levels fall by 20-
30% due to collection of dust.
Use of 36W tubelight instead of 40 W tubelight saves electricity by
8 to 10%.
Use of sodium vapour lamps for area lighting in place of Mercury
vapour lamps saves electricity upto 40%.
Compressed air is very energy intensive. Only 5% of electrical
energy are converted to useful energy. Use of compressed air for
cleaning is rarely justified.
Ensure low temperature of inlet air. Increase in inlet air
temperature by 30C increases power consumption by 1%.
It should be examined whether air at lower pressure can be used in
the process. Reduction in discharge pressure by 10% saves energy
consumption up to 5%.
A leakage from a ½” diameter hole from a compressed air line
working at a pressure of 7kg/cm2 can drain almost Rs. 2500 per
Air output of compressors per unit of electricity input must be
measured at regular intervals. Efficiency of compressors tends to
deteriorate with time.
Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
Use of double doors, automatic door closers, air curtains, double
glazed windows, polyester sun films etc. reduces heat ingress and
air-conditioning load of buildings.
Maintain condensers for proper heat exchange. A 50C decrease in
evaporator temperature increases the specific power consumption
Utilization of air-conditioned/refrigerated space should be
examined and efforts made to reduce cooling load as far as
Utilize waste heat of excess steam or flue gases to change over
from gas compression systems to absorption chilling systems and
save energy costs in the range of 50-70%.
Replacement of inefficient aluminum or fabricated steel fans by
moulded FRP fans with aerofoil designs results in electricity
savings in the range of 15-0%.
A study on a typical 20ft. diameter fan revealed that replacing
wooden blade drift eliminators with newly developed cellular PVC
drift eliminators reduces the drift losses from 0.01-0.02% with a
fan power energy saving of 10%.
Install automatic ON-OFF switching of cooling tower fans and
save upto 40% on electricity costs.
Use of PVC fills in place of wooden bars results in a saving in
pumping power of upto 20%.
Power Generation, Transmission and
Performance Improvement of Existing Power Plant
Use of multi fuel fired boiler
Remove the manual operation in fuel feeding, ash removal & boiler
Use of microprocessor based measurement and control instruments
Maximize thermal efficiencies
Minimize boiler blowdown
Carry out motor load survey
Substitute motors having low loads by smaller size motors or change
connection to star from delta
Use soft starters or energy savers
Explore possibility of replacing motor with high efficiency motor
Use of Co-generation Plants
Improved power transmission lines & reduction in line losses
Proper size of conductor
Better line insulation
Improved power factor
Energy Conservation in Cement Industry
Due to frequent variations in the quality of coal, inadequate
supplies and transportation bottlenecks go for substitute fuels like,
lignite, rice-husk, petroleum coke etc.
Use alternate fuels such as natural gas and pet coke.
Use industrial and agricultural combustible wastes as
For uninterrupted power supply have your own captive power
Rationalize compressed air utilization.
Use energy efficient equipment like high efficiency fans
Carry out Heat and gas balance
Recover waste heat of preheater and use for cogeneration of power.
Increase utilization of waste products generated by other
industries(substitution like use of fly ash and petroleum coke, the
by products of thermal power and refinery industry respectively)
Install fly ash handling & feeding system.
Reduce energy consumption in manufacturing at each stage &
monitor energy performance of the plant.
Optimize raw mix
Use low ash coal
Prevent idle running of equipment by providing interlooking
arrangement and operating with PLC system. Generate daily report
on idle running of equipment, also in terms of monetary losses.
Repair steam leaks
Adopt preventive maintenance approach
Reinforce heat insulation
Establish efficient management information system for identifying
various important parameters for efficient operation of the
equipment and taking timely remedial measures.
Minimize waste by installing efficient dust collector equipment.
Carry out energy audits.
Stop use of compressed air for floor cleaning.
Check for compressed air leakage and arrest it.
Switch off one compressor if requirement can be met by balance
Reduce compressed air pressure from 8 Kg/Cm2 to 7.0 Kg/Cm2
where ever possible to conserve energy, when required pressure at
usage point is 6.0 Kg/Cm2
Prevent idle operation of the motors
Replace underloaded / overloaded motors with proper size motors.
Replace the motors with energy efficiency motors.
If possible switch off one transformer running under loaded in
parallel. Maintain all transformers at a loading of 70 to 80 % of
rated capacity to minimize loss component (no load losses).
Try to have separate transformer for lighting where voltage can be
Improve power factor by regular checking of current of all the
capacitors and their timely replacement.
Install Automatic power factor correction device to have power
factor of 0.99 to 1.00
Replace 40W Tube light by slim 28W Tube light and
electromagnetic choke with electronic choke.
Replace 400 Watt Mercury Vapour lamps with 250 Watt sodium
vapour lamps or 250 W metal hallide lamps.
Replace 250 Watt Mercury Vapour lamps with 150 Watt sodium
vapour lamps or 150 W metal hallide lamps.
Provide more transparent sheet instead of asbestos sheets to use
Install energy saver for reducing the lighting load.
Prevent unnecessary lighting of the electric lamps.
Rationalize lighting in identified areas i.e remove excess lighting in
identified areas. Also relocate lighting, if necessary.
Drive between 45-55 Km/H
Keep your engine healthy
Drive in the Correct Gear
Don‟t wait for your car to warm up
Good Braking Habits
Keep your Foot off the Clutch
Watch Your Tyre Pressure
When you stop your car, stop engine
Use the Recommended grade of oil
Plan Your Route
saving diesel in tractors
badly maintained tractor wastes up to 25 % of precious diesel.
Stop diesel leaks
Turn your engine off, when you stop
Worn out tyres reduce pulling power. Replug tyres on time. While
refitting tyres, make sure the „V‟ treads point downwards when
viewed from the front
Plan your field run. Plough according to a planned layout that
reduces idle running, backtracking and awkward turn.
saving diesel in Lift Irrigation Pumps
Use good quality foot valve having less resistance
Educate the farmers by the dealers of irrigation pump sets for
better energy conservation
Less numbers of bend in pipe lines
Decide model & capacity of pump set according to head &
A few minutes of planning ensures a big fuel saving while cooking
Pressure cooking saves fuel
Use optimum quantity of water
Reduce the flame when boiling starts
Soak before cooking
Shallow, wide vessels save fuel
Put the lid on heat losses
The small burner saves fuel
A clean burner helps save fuel
Clean vessels help too
Allow frozen food to reach room temperature before cooking
Plan your meal timings
Use washing machine to its full capacity
Do not use dryer for drying the clothes at least in the summer
season/ dry season
Do not open and close the door frequently
Open the door up to half of its opening capacity not up to the 90
degree or more
Do not keep hot food/milk in the freeze without its proper
Keep the freeze at least 6 to 12 inches away from the wall so
condenser coil gets free air circulation
Do not allow direct sunlight on the freeze
Remove all obstacles, which are in front of A.C.
Remove dust from the grill regularly
Turn the A.C. „off‟ before half an hour of leaving the room
Insulate wall and ceiling of the room as far as possible by means
of fiberglass or wood
Grow more trees around your house
Avoid direct sunlight on the heat exchanger of the A.C. unit