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Introduction to organic chemistry
Introduction to organic chemistry
Introduction to organic chemistry
Introduction to organic chemistry
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Introduction to organic chemistry

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  • 1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry&lt;br /&gt;<ul><li>the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) rules:
  • 2. based on the number of regions of high electron density around a central atom
  • 3. can be used to predict structures of molecule or irons
  • 4. whether it contains only non-metals or multiple bonds/ unpaired electrons
  • 5. the VSEPR rule:
  • 6. Draw the Lewis structure
  • 7. Count the total number of high electron density around the central atom
  • 8. double and triple bonds count as ONE
  • 9. an unpaired electron counts as ONE
  • 10. Identify the most stable arrangement of the structure as one of the following:
  • 11. # regions of high electron densitybest arrangementdescription2linear3trigonal planar4tetrahedral5trigonal bipyramidal6octahedral
  • 12. Determine the position of the atoms based on the types of electron pairs present
  • 13. (for trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral arrangements, there can sometimes be more than one possible arrangement)
  • 14. Identify the molecular structure based on the positions of the ATOMS (not on the regions)
  • 15. Definition of the types of molecules.
  • 16. an Alkane (saturated hydrocarbon) is an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. All carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds
  • 17. an Alkene (insaturated hydrocarbon) is an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. At least one of the carbon-carbon bonds is a double bond. The molecule on the left represent the simplest alkene: ethylene (ethene) H2C=CH2
  • 18. an Alkyne (insaturated hydrocarbon) is an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. At least one of the carbon-carbon bond is a triple bond. The molecule on the left represent the simplest alkyne: acethylene (ethyne) HCCH
  • 19. How much does the functional group affect the geometric the molecules?</li></ul>Alkanes The simplest alkanes are Methane CH4, Ethane CH3-CH3, propane CH3-CH2-CH3, and linear butane C4H10 Alkenes Naming alkenes is similar to naming alkanes.  The presence of the rigid double bond suppress the rotation around the carbon-carbon bond and allows cis-trans isomerisationexample:  When several carbon-carbon double bonds are present in the molecule, the compound is a polyene (diene,triene ...).trans-1,3-Pentadiene is such a moleculeAlkyne Naming alkynes is similar to naming alkanes. &lt;br /&gt;Alkanes (Propane)trigonal planar = 3 high electron densityAlkenes (Propene)tetrahedral = 4 high electron densityAlkyne (Propyne)linear = 2 high electron density&lt;br /&gt;<ul><li>What the molecules look like? Be able to identify functional groups, comment on impact it has on it geometric arrangement.
  • 20. How to name the molecules of that group?</li></ul>AlkaneFor linear alkanes with a longer carbon chain, the suffix &quot;ane&quot; is added to the greek prefix corresponding to the number of carbon atoms (example: hexane C6H14)If alkane groups substitute one or several hydrogen atoms:example: Find the longest carbon chain to obtain the name of the alkane (hexane)For the substituents, add the suffix &quot;yl&quot; to the root (methyl and ethyl)the full name is: 2-methyl,3-ethylhexaneAlkeneThe suffix &quot;ene&quot; is added rather than &quot;aneif there are more than 3 carbon atoms, the location of the double bond is specified.example: 1-pentene CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3, 2-pentene CH3CH=CHCH2CH3  when several carbon-carbon double bonds are present in the molecule, the compound is a polyene (diene,triene ...). trans-1,3-Pentadiene is such a moleculeAlkyneThe suffix &quot;yne&quot; is added rather than &quot;aneif there are more than 3 carbon atoms, the location of the triple bond is specified.example: 1-pentyne CHC-CH2CH2CH3, 2-pentyne CH3CC-CH2CH3&lt;br /&gt;<ul><li>Draw a 2D structural formula (Lewis).

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