Introduction to Organic Chemistry<br /><ul><li>the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) rules:
based on the number of regions of high electron density around a central atom
can be used to predict structures of molecule or irons
whether it contains only non-metals or multiple bonds/ unpaired electrons
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Introduction to organic chemistry

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Introduction to organic chemistry

  1. 1. Introduction to Organic Chemistry<br /><ul><li>the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) rules:
  2. 2. based on the number of regions of high electron density around a central atom
  3. 3. can be used to predict structures of molecule or irons
  4. 4. whether it contains only non-metals or multiple bonds/ unpaired electrons
  5. 5. the VSEPR rule:
  6. 6. Draw the Lewis structure
  7. 7. Count the total number of high electron density around the central atom
  8. 8. double and triple bonds count as ONE
  9. 9. an unpaired electron counts as ONE
  10. 10. Identify the most stable arrangement of the structure as one of the following:
  11. 11. # regions of high electron densitybest arrangementdescription2linear3trigonal planar4tetrahedral5trigonal bipyramidal6octahedral
  12. 12. Determine the position of the atoms based on the types of electron pairs present
  13. 13. (for trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral arrangements, there can sometimes be more than one possible arrangement)
  14. 14. Identify the molecular structure based on the positions of the ATOMS (not on the regions)
  15. 15. Definition of the types of molecules.
  16. 16. an Alkane (saturated hydrocarbon) is an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. All carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds
  17. 17. an Alkene (insaturated hydrocarbon) is an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. At least one of the carbon-carbon bonds is a double bond. The molecule on the left represent the simplest alkene: ethylene (ethene) H2C=CH2
  18. 18. an Alkyne (insaturated hydrocarbon) is an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. At least one of the carbon-carbon bond is a triple bond. The molecule on the left represent the simplest alkyne: acethylene (ethyne) HCCH
  19. 19. How much does the functional group affect the geometric the molecules?</li></ul>Alkanes The simplest alkanes are Methane CH4, Ethane CH3-CH3, propane CH3-CH2-CH3, and linear butane C4H10 Alkenes Naming alkenes is similar to naming alkanes.  The presence of the rigid double bond suppress the rotation around the carbon-carbon bond and allows cis-trans isomerisationexample:  When several carbon-carbon double bonds are present in the molecule, the compound is a polyene (diene,triene ...).trans-1,3-Pentadiene is such a moleculeAlkyne Naming alkynes is similar to naming alkanes. <br />Alkanes (Propane)trigonal planar = 3 high electron densityAlkenes (Propene)tetrahedral = 4 high electron densityAlkyne (Propyne)linear = 2 high electron density<br /><ul><li>What the molecules look like? Be able to identify functional groups, comment on impact it has on it geometric arrangement.
  20. 20. How to name the molecules of that group?</li></ul>AlkaneFor linear alkanes with a longer carbon chain, the suffix "ane" is added to the greek prefix corresponding to the number of carbon atoms (example: hexane C6H14)If alkane groups substitute one or several hydrogen atoms:example: Find the longest carbon chain to obtain the name of the alkane (hexane)For the substituents, add the suffix "yl" to the root (methyl and ethyl)the full name is: 2-methyl,3-ethylhexaneAlkeneThe suffix "ene" is added rather than "aneif there are more than 3 carbon atoms, the location of the double bond is specified.example: 1-pentene CH2=CHCH2CH2CH3, 2-pentene CH3CH=CHCH2CH3  when several carbon-carbon double bonds are present in the molecule, the compound is a polyene (diene,triene ...). trans-1,3-Pentadiene is such a moleculeAlkyneThe suffix "yne" is added rather than "aneif there are more than 3 carbon atoms, the location of the triple bond is specified.example: 1-pentyne CHC-CH2CH2CH3, 2-pentyne CH3CC-CH2CH3<br /><ul><li>Draw a 2D structural formula (Lewis).

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