Mdd therapy caption(science)


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Mdd therapy caption(science)

  1. 1. Kristin CoadMay 23, 2010Psych 1 Compare/ contrast essay on major depressive therapy Psychological disorders are a huge part of learning and understanding psychology,although, diagnosing and treating the disorder plays an even bigger role. There are manydifferent types and subtypes of psychological disorders ranging from complications such asobsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) to the major and more life threatening, schizophrenia.Aside from schizophrenia, major depressive disorder is one of the most commonly understoodand treated disorders today. Because there are so many different types of disorders, therecomes a wide range of therapies to treat even the most specific. When there is a disorder, thereis a therapy for it whether it is psychopharmacological, cognitive or even shock therapy. Thispaper will explore the different types of therapy in the treatment for major depressive disorder. Whatever the disorder, there are usually ways around to treat it. In psychology, there area few main ways of treating the well known major depressive disorder. The three treatmentsinclude cognitive, psychopharmacological, and lastly electroconvulsive. These different types oftherapy are similar in the sense that they are all trying to help an individual overcomedepression, but then they are all fairly different because the process in which they are treatingdepression is very broad and dissimilar. The least harmful approach in treating major depressive disorder would have to becognitive therapy. In cognitive therapy, the psychologist talks to the individual with depression tohelp sort out negative thoughts and evaluations that are being suppressed, causing them stressand furthermore, depression. There are nine different sub-types to go along with cognitivetherapy. However, the main sub-types includes: self-evaluation which deals with how we ashumans evaluate the way we are managing life tasks, doing what we are supposed to be doing,acting they way we’re supposed to act, and things such as that. In this sub-type, the individualwith depression evaluates themselves as being messed up, and not doing the right thing, all thetime. Their overall self-evaluation tends to always be negative and persistently critical causingthem to have a lower self esteem, and always having a sense of being a failure. 1
  2. 2. Another sub-type is identification of skill deficit which deals with learning how to dothings that are necessary in achieving what they want, and an overall better outcome whether itis with life or simply a better choice. Unfortunately, the depressed individual doesn’t believe thatthey have the effort to change, and act differently to achieve a better outcome for them self.This sub-type is usually also paired with negative self-evaluation, relating back to the self-evaluation sub-type. In addition to evaluation and deficits, irrational ideas and beliefs are known to be at theheart of most psychological disorders. These irrational beliefs can also be classified as incorrect,or unrealistic. Irrational beliefs tend to stem from a basis of false assumptions that have beenmade by the individual who is depressed. Irrational ideas and beliefs can be about anything, butwhat really makes them irrational is that the depressed individual strongly believes that they arecorrect. Lastly, pessimistic thinking doesn’t necessarily cause depression, but it is shown that if aperson who constantly thinks negatively, that it becomes easier to form depression. A key aspectof pessimism is hopelessness, and strongly believing one-self is hopeless. If a depressedindividual looks at the world through negative, bad, filled with issues eyes, then of course thereis a higher chance of becoming depressed. The feeling of hopelessness stems from believing thatlife will never get better, and that there is no future. On the other hand, optimism helps comforta person by looking at the world as a good, positive, happy place. People who are moreoptimistic tend to increase their chance of never becoming depressed. Cognitive therapy, in general, is the evaluation of ones self, irrational beliefs andthoughts, pessimistic thinking, overgeneralization of negativity etc. To overcome depression bycognitive therapy, realization of all these evaluations is needed, and to look at life and everythingamongst it as good and positive. Psychologists help an individual with depression come to theserealizations through talking sessions. They also help the person with depression overcome anyhardships, by moving on and to look at the world more optimistically. To have an optimisticoutlook on life will highly decrease the chances of someone having depression. Other thancognitive, there is another type of very important therapy: electroconvulsive. This type oftherapy differs greatly from cognitive in many ways. 2
  3. 3. Electroconvulsive (ECT) therapy is very dissimilar to cognitive therapy in the sense thatthere is no need to come to a realization about self-evaluation or pessimistic thinking.Electroconvulsive therapy is only used on the worst depression cases because not only is itdangerous because it requires hospitalization, but it is also expensive and a huge amount ofcommitment is needed. If every other therapy fails or when the depression has progressed toofar, or when drugs will take too long, ECT is used because it is the fastest and strongest way torelieve a person from the extreme state of depression. Because of all these requirements, ECT isonly reserved for the most severe cases, also making ECT a very uncommon solution to cure aperson from depression. Electroconvulsive therapy is treatment that consists of medically controlled seizures. Theseizures occur when there is an electric current that is passed between two panels that areplaced on either side of the scalp. Prior to treatment, the patient with depression is given atemporary anesthetic, so that they don’t endure any more stress on the body. Just after thepatient receives the anesthetic, they are given an additional dose of muscle relaxants to helpcontrol the contraction of the muscles throughout the seizure. Because seizures make musclesstrongly contract, this medication is highly necessary. During the controlled seizure, the patient isgiven oxygen via facemask because the anesthetic and muscle relaxant interfere with normalrespiration, which may furthermore cause complications throughout the treatment. This therapyis completed in about 8 to 12 individual treatments, three to four times a week, all includingthese steps to start and control the seizure. Antidepressants are started towards the end of theentire treatment to give further protection from the depression arising later on. With ECT, there come many risks and side effects that anyone undergoing ECT shouldkeep in mind. Even though the side effects are usually not extremely serious, they can becomedifficult in patients that have undergone the series of treatments. Normal side effects of thistreatment include nausea and headaches that can be easily treated with medications for pain.Because an electric current is passed through the brain, the more serious and recognized sideeffect following ECT is memory loss. Because ECT interferes with memory storage, events thathappen through out the duration of the treatment, or even shortly before, are often notremembered after it is finished. On the up side, memories that have happened before the 3
  4. 4. electroconvulsive treatment started do stay intact, and the ability to form new memories goesback to normal shortly after the 8- 12 treatments have ended. Luckily, there has never been anyrecorded permanent brain damage due to ECT. One last way to minimize brain damage is to only stimulate one side of the brain by onlysending an electrical current through one lobe of the brain. The best solution for this, and tocreate no further memory loss is to stimulate only the right side, considering that the left side ofthe brain controls more things. The downside to this is that the treatment becomes lesseffective, and may take longer to treat the depression, requiring more treatments. The last main type of psychological therapy to help subside major depressive disorderincludes psychopharmacological therapy, or drugs to help depression in individuals. The commonterm for psychopharmacological therapy is antidepressants, including drugs such as Prozac, Paxil,Nardil etc. This type of therapy, unlike the others, takes a much longer time to treat depression.A person who is put on antidepressants can be on the drugs for upwards of a year, or evenlonger. In the past, physicians have been known to prescribe antidepressants that have increasedside effects, one of them including suicide. Now a day, they have come out with newerantidepressants that are nontricyclic that cut down the risk of side effects. The process in which patients go in for treatment are usually acknowledged to bring along a family member or a friend, because the antidepressant therapy can be mentally drainingand tedious. Before any antidepressants can be prescribed, the physician should let the patientknow that noticeable improvement won’t show up before 2-4 weeks of being on the treatment.The overall antidepressant therapy will take a minimum of 6-12 for the depression to diminish,and for the patient to recover. This process can take longer or even fail because of a low dosagefor an overall too short a time. If the antidepressant therapy fails, the drug dosage would be lifted to the maximumrecommended amount, and remain on that dose for a minimum 4-6 weeks. If still after being onthe highest dose of medication and the treatment still doesnt work, the therapy is thenconsidered unsuccessful, and a new approach will be taken. Another way to ensure that thetherapy does work is to relieve the individual of any stress that is getting in the way of theantidepressant therapy. Stress plays a leading cause in depression, and is needed to be 4
  5. 5. minimized for the full effects of the therapy to work. Once stress is calmed, a depressedindividual can undergo a full course of antidepressant therapy. Even though stress can beeliminated, individuals who are clinically depressed may also suffer from anxiety issues. Luvoxand Ativan are the antidepressant of choice for reducing extreme anxiety. Patients can alsobenefit from Klonopin or Rivotril if it is added to their dose of antidepressant such as Prozac. The entire reason behind psychopharmacological therapy is the use of antidepressants,dose and elapsed time of being on the drug. There are three main types of antidepressants:MAOI, SNRI and SSRI medication. Firstly, SSRI drugs include the well known Prozac (fluoxetine)and others such as Paxil (paraoxetine), Zoloft (sertaline), and Luvox (fluvoxamine). These types ofantidepressants should never be combined with MAOI, Nardil (phenelzine) and Parnate(tranylcypromine) medication. Lastly, SNRI antidepressants includes Effexor (venlafexine) Theaverage dose of an antidepressant starting off is around 10mg of Prozac or Paxil for acontinuation of 3-5 weeks; It is then increased to 20mg. That is just one example of theacceptable amount of medication for a patient who is on SSRI or MAOI antidepressant. If for any reason, a switch between these two types of antidepressants, a minimum of atleast two weeks needs to elapse before the patient can continue on a different medication. SSRIhas a tendency for fewer side effects, like weight gain and suicide, so this becomes the primechoice for a starter antidepressant. Even though SSRI has a lower chance of suicide, thosepatients who are severely depressed do have a higher risk for overdosing with their medication. There are so many different types of psychological disorders, but even more ways to treatindividuals who have them. One of the most common and understood disorder is majordepressive disorder which effects the life and mental state of the individual who has it. Majordepressive disorder is an extreme disorder that affects many people in very different ways. Inpsychology, there are the three main ways for trying to relieve an individual of depression. Firstlythere is cognitive which deals with the realization of negative self-evaluation, self deficits andpessimism and trying to treat the patient by having them think more optimistically aboutthemselves and life. Secondly, electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective, yet requires themost commitment, way of treating a patient with depression. ECT deals with medicallycontrolled seizures. ECT is the fastest, yet least common type of therapy today. Lastly, 5
  6. 6. psychopharmacological therapy deals with the use of antidepressant medication to try and havethe patient in a stable state. There are many different types of antidepressants are out andavailable, such as Prozac and Zoloft to name a few. Even though there are so many differentways to relieve someone of depression, not everything can work, and that is what leads tosuicide. The easiest way out to try and prevent psychological disorders, especially majordepressive disorder, is exercise and a healthy life style. If people take the initiative and startliving a healthy life, the amount of psychological disorders would decrease over time. A healthylife is just as important to us as oxygen; we need proper nutrition and exercise to get themaximum out of life, which is why it is a key factor in reducing psychological disorders. This essay was done during Intro to Psychology in my junior year. The basis of the essay was todepict the different types of therapy to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). I chose to do a caption onthis is because I feel that I learned a lot on not only MDD, but also the different types of therapy. I findthis kind of knowledge is really interesting, that is why I wrote so much. I believe that I did a good jobexecuting and explaining these therapies. The ways of knowing that are important to psychology includelanguage, emotion and perception. 6