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MWH Imperialism Newspaper

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  • 1. Japan Invades China Empire Building: China has become an Sino-Japanese war China opens its ports economic power today. Treaty of Shimonoseki to Western and Japan Yasukuni War Shrine Controversy Boxer Rebellion powers and was later Japanese history textbook controversy carved up. No formal apology by Japan for war crimes Setting the Stage: China was being cut up by Western powers who wanted trade with China. Japan also wanted Chinese tea, silk and piece of China. By Emperor Meiji Restoration, Japan could get modernize and a strong power, so Japan could get a test of strength with China on the Korean Peninsula. At first, Japan and China want to trade with Korea. However, China sent troops to Korea by secret, but Japan knew it so Japan was angry with China so the war called Sino-Japanese War began in 1894. Colonized by Japan Motives of Imperialism: Western powers were interested in China for its agricultural economy, mining, shipping and manufacturing industries. The Chinese also produced tea, beautiful silks, fine porcelain and textiles. Japan also wanted empire like European powers because Empire was sign of great nation. The Sino-Japanese war was a test of power between China and Japan on the Korean Peninsula (Littell, 371). Bombing of Nanjing in 1937 (Sino-Japanese war)
  • 2. Process:China lost the Sino-Japanese war to Japan because Japan had modern equipment and technology. The Japanese had more capable leaders and were more united than the Chinese. China, on the other hand, was hampered by internal political problems, corruption, inadequate leadership, and civil war. Political division happened because some Chinese favor democracy by Sun Yixian and Kuomintang, but other Chinese favor Lenin style communism and peasants support new Communist Party with leader Mao Zedong (Schirokauer, 467). Key Events during 1894-1941 Sino-Japanese war (1894-1895):In the nineteenth century, Korea was troubled by internal problems and external pressures. In 1876, Japan forced Korea to sign a treaty to open three ports to Japanese trade. However, China was also interested in Korea as a trading partner so Japan and China agreed to sign an agreement with both countries agreeing not to send their troops to Korea without first informing each other. However, when rebellions broke out in Korea, the Chinese sent troops to help Korea but Japan was not pleased and sent its own troops to Korea to fight the Chinese (Littell, 378). Japanese lines of attack in the Sino-Japanese war (First Sino-Japanese War) Treaty of Shimonoseki (April 1895):After China lost the war to Japan, China agreed to sign a peace treaty with Japan called the Treaty of Shimonoseki. According to the treaty, China has to relinquished all claims to a special role in Korea. In addition, China had to give Taiwan and, the Pescadores Islands to Japan and was also forced to open seven new treaty ports (Schirokauer, 467-468). Japanese and Chinese talks after the Sino-Japanese War (Treaty of Shimonoseki)
  • 3. Boxer Rebellion: “Humiliated by their loss of power, many Chinese pressed for strong reforms” (Littell, 374). Time and again, foreigners forced China to make humiliating concessions which the Chinese resented. To show their disapproval, they formed a secret society called the Fists of Righteous Harmony which later became known as the Boxers. Their campaign to overthrow the imperial Ch’ing government and to expel all “foreign devils” from China was called the Boxer Rebellion. In June 1900, thousands of Boxers descended to Beijing and declared war on all the treaty power. They attacked foreign missionaries and Chinese converts. In August, an international troop from eight countries marched to Beijing and defeated the Boxers. Boxers attack Chinese Christians (Boxer Rebellion) Effects on China Japan’s colonization of China has left some negative effects on Chinese-Japanese diplomatic relations even up to nowadays, such as the controversy about Japan’s Prime Minister’s visits to Yasukuni National War Shrine, no apology by Japan for war crimes such as Nanjing Massacre, and Japanese school history textbooks that never say truth about what Japanese soldiers did in World War II. Japanese soldier cutting off head of Chinese prisoner (Nanjing Massacre)
  • 4. A timeline of China’s events and details about events during 1867 – 1941. China’s Events(1867 – 1941) 1867 Meiji Restoration 1919 May fourth movement  Goal to make modern China  Supported by Sun Yixian & Kuomintang  Some support Lenin’s style communism 1894 – 1895  Sino – Japanese war  Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japan got 1st colonies: Taiwan, Pescadores Islands and Liaodong Peninsula.) 1921 Chinese communist Party made by Mao Zedong 1900 Boxer Rebellion April 1927 Nationalists attack China’s communists 1905 Russo – Japanese war (1st time European power defeated by non – European people. Japan was equal power to European powers.) 1930 Civil war starts 1911 Qing Dynasty overthrown by Revolutionary Alliance 1931 Japan invades Manchuria 1912 Sun Yixian became president of China 1937 Japan invades China 1914 World War I begins 1938 Nationalists & Communists stopped civil war to fight against Japan 1916 Civil war in China July 1941 U.S stopped oil shipments to Japan to force Japan out of China 1918 World War I ends (Allies give Chinese territory taken by Germany to Japan.) Dec 1941 Japan makes surprise attack on Pearl Harbor Seasia.
  • 5. Works Cited Beck, Roger B et al. “Chinese Resists Outside Influence.” Modern World History Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littel, 2005. 347 Gray, Robert. “The Nanjing Massacre.” Japanese imperialismand the Massacre in Nanjing. February 1996. <http://www.cnd.org/njmassacre/njm-tran/>. Schirokauer, Conrad. A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilization. 2nd Edition. Singapore: Wadsworth, 1989. Unknown. “Boxer Rebellion.”<http://www.burningcross.net/inquisition/missionaries/boxer- rebellion.jpg>. Unknown. “Boxer Rebellion.”<http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/fists.html>. Unknown. “Sino-Japanese War.” Anti-Japan Sentiment in China. <http://picture.online.sh.cn/4/104/822/7935.jpg>. Unknown. “Sino-Japanese War maps.” Throwing off AsiaⅡ. <http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/throwing_off_asia_01/image/TOA_map01_s.jp g>. Unknown. “Treaty of Shimonoseki.”<http://www.52en.com/img/treaty2.jpg>. Yuki Matsuda MWH Period 5 4/Nov/08