Japan Invades China
Empire Building: China has become an Sino-Japanese war
China opens its ports economic power today. Treaty of Shimonoseki
to Western and Japan Yasukuni War Shrine Controversy Boxer Rebellion
powers and was later Japanese history textbook controversy
carved up. No formal apology by Japan for war crimes
Setting the Stage: China was being cut up by Western powers who wanted trade with
China. Japan also wanted Chinese tea, silk and piece of China. By Emperor Meiji
Restoration, Japan could get modernize and a strong power, so Japan could get a test of
strength with China on the Korean Peninsula. At first, Japan and China want to trade
with Korea. However, China sent troops to Korea by secret, but Japan knew it so Japan
was angry with China so the war called Sino-Japanese War began in 1894.
Colonized by Japan
Motives of Imperialism: Western powers
were interested in China for its agricultural
economy, mining, shipping and manufacturing
industries. The Chinese also produced tea,
beautiful silks, fine porcelain and textiles.
Japan also wanted empire like European powers
because Empire was sign of great nation. The
Sino-Japanese war was a test of power between
China and Japan on the Korean Peninsula (Littell, 371). Bombing of Nanjing in 1937
Process:China lost the Sino-Japanese war to Japan because Japan had modern
equipment and technology. The Japanese had more capable leaders and were more
united than the Chinese. China, on the other hand, was hampered by internal political
problems, corruption, inadequate leadership, and civil war. Political division happened
because some Chinese favor democracy by Sun Yixian and Kuomintang, but other
Chinese favor Lenin style communism and peasants support new Communist Party with
leader Mao Zedong (Schirokauer, 467).
Key Events during 1894-1941
Sino-Japanese war (1894-1895):In the nineteenth
century, Korea was troubled by internal problems and
external pressures. In 1876, Japan forced Korea to sign a
treaty to open three ports to Japanese trade. However,
China was also interested in Korea as a trading partner so
Japan and China agreed to sign an agreement with both
countries agreeing not to send their troops to Korea without
first informing each other. However, when rebellions broke
out in Korea, the Chinese sent troops to help Korea but
Japan was not pleased and sent its own troops to Korea to
fight the Chinese (Littell, 378).
Japanese lines of attack in the Sino-Japanese war
(First Sino-Japanese War)
Treaty of Shimonoseki (April 1895):After China lost the war
to Japan, China agreed to sign a peace treaty with Japan called
the Treaty of Shimonoseki. According to the treaty, China has to
relinquished all claims to a special role in Korea. In addition,
China had to give Taiwan and, the Pescadores Islands to Japan
and was also forced to open seven new treaty ports
Japanese and Chinese talks after the Sino-Japanese War
(Treaty of Shimonoseki)
Boxer Rebellion: “Humiliated by their loss of power,
many Chinese pressed for strong reforms” (Littell, 374).
Time and again, foreigners forced China to make
humiliating concessions which the Chinese resented. To
show their disapproval, they formed a secret society
called the Fists of Righteous Harmony which later
became known as the Boxers. Their campaign to
overthrow the imperial Ch’ing government and to expel
all “foreign devils” from China was called the Boxer
Rebellion. In June 1900, thousands of Boxers descended
to Beijing and declared war on all the treaty power. They
attacked foreign missionaries and Chinese converts. In
August, an international troop from eight countries
marched to Beijing and defeated the Boxers.
Boxers attack Chinese Christians
Effects on China
Japan’s colonization of China has left some negative effects
on Chinese-Japanese diplomatic relations even up to
nowadays, such as the controversy about Japan’s Prime
Minister’s visits to Yasukuni National War Shrine, no
apology by Japan for war crimes such as Nanjing Massacre,
and Japanese school history textbooks that never say truth
about what Japanese soldiers did in World War II.
Japanese soldier cutting off
head of Chinese prisoner
A timeline of China’s events and details about events during 1867 – 1941.
China’s Events(1867 – 1941)
1867 Meiji Restoration 1919 May fourth movement
Goal to make modern China
Supported by Sun Yixian &
Some support Lenin’s style
Sino – Japanese war
Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japan got
1st colonies: Taiwan, Pescadores
Islands and Liaodong Peninsula.)
1921 Chinese communist Party made by
1900 Boxer Rebellion April
Nationalists attack China’s
1905 Russo – Japanese war (1st time
European power defeated by non –
European people. Japan was equal
power to European powers.)
1930 Civil war starts
1911 Qing Dynasty overthrown by
1931 Japan invades Manchuria
1912 Sun Yixian became president of China 1937 Japan invades China
1914 World War I begins 1938 Nationalists & Communists stopped
civil war to fight against Japan
1916 Civil war in China July
U.S stopped oil shipments to Japan to
force Japan out of China
1918 World War I ends (Allies give Chinese
territory taken by Germany to Japan.)
Japan makes surprise attack on Pearl
Beck, Roger B et al. “Chinese Resists Outside Influence.” Modern World History Patterns of
Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littel, 2005. 347
Gray, Robert. “The Nanjing Massacre.” Japanese imperialismand the Massacre in Nanjing.
February 1996. <http://www.cnd.org/njmassacre/njm-tran/>.
Schirokauer, Conrad. A Brief History of Chinese and Japanese Civilization. 2nd Edition.
Singapore: Wadsworth, 1989.
Unknown. “Boxer Rebellion.”<http://www.burningcross.net/inquisition/missionaries/boxer-
Unknown. “Boxer Rebellion.”<http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/fists.html>.
Unknown. “Sino-Japanese War.” Anti-Japan Sentiment in China.
Unknown. “Sino-Japanese War maps.” Throwing off AsiaⅡ.
Unknown. “Treaty of Shimonoseki.”<http://www.52en.com/img/treaty2.jpg>.
MWH Period 5