INTRODUCTION. Texitile industry is the mechanical facility that convert filament, fibre or yarn that can be made into fablic or cloth and the resulting material. Fablic can be knitted, bonded, felted and tufted fablic.
THE WORK ENVIRONMENT. The work environment in the textile mills is dominatly hamful/ dangerarous due to noise, dust, and heat. The production uses a vast quatity of water and variety of chemicals. These generate liquid waste containing substantial pollutants in the form of organic and suspended matter, such as fibres and grease (UNEP, 1991).
THE WORK ENVIRONMENT CONT… Fild work have been shown that, in both countries and most countries and and most production stage, noise level are beyond the legal limit of 80dB. Floor are usualy dirty, the pre spinning stage extemely dust and the finishing stage toxic with highly concentrated odours.
PROCESS INVOLVED. Preparatory process-preparation of yarn. Spining- yarn manufacture. -measurements. -associate job titles. Knitting- fablic manufacture. Finishing- processing of textile. Packaging
CHEMICAL AND MATERIAL USED. Raw material used in the texitile production are fibres, either obtained from natural source (eg wool) or produced from chemical substance (eg nylon and polyester). Fibres include yards, films, sheets, foams, fur or lether.
Chemical used cont… Chemicals used are textile auxilaries, enzymes, bleaching chemicals, disizing chemicals, dyeing chemicals, stabilizer, softeners, leveling agent along with anhydrous acids, tertaric acid, maleic acid, dyes, fumaric acid, alpha amylase.
HEALTH HAZARDS AND RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH TEXITILE INDUSTRIES. Hazard is any substance or agent that can cause potential health effect and it can be biological, chemical, physical substance. During textile processing the worker are exposed to various hazards and risks, hazards are classified into chemical, physical, ergonomic and computer hazards.
Types of hazards. Physical hazard, for example heat, dust, noise, physical characteristics of material. Chemical hazards, for example chemicals used in fabric processing. EgSulphuric acid. Ergonomics. For example increased repetitious, seated for long period of time, poor arrangement of the machine, lifting large load, squatting position, Psychosocial factor ergonomics include boring, stress, low pay, lack of recognition, production pressure and repetitious task.
CHEMICAL HAZARDS. Air pollutants such as dusts, gases, fumes and vapour that are inherent in the material are produced in the process and can be inhaled or affect the skin, in addition to chemical hazards of dyes, paints, acids, alkalis, moth proofing agents be contaminated with biological then can cause disease.
PHYSICAL HAZARDS. The physical characteristics of materials may affects the user. Rough, thorny or abrasive material can cut or abrade skin, glass, fibres or stiff grases or ratten can penetrate the skin and cause infections or rashes. Much of fibres or fabric work is done while the worker is seated for prolonged periods, and involves repetitious motion of arms, wrists, hands and fingers, and often the entile body.
PHYSICAL HAZARDS CONT… This may produce pain and eventual repetitive strain injuries. Weavers for example, can develope back problems, cerpal tunnel syndrome, skeletal deformation from weaving in squatting position on older types of looms(particulary in young children), hand and threading and tying knots, and eyestrain from poor lighting. Many of the same problems can occur in other fibre crafts involving sewing, tying knots and so forth.
PHYSICAL HAZARDS CONT… Needle work crafts can also involve hazard of needle pricks. Lifting of large paper making screen containing water saturated pulp can cause possible back injuries due to weight of the water and pulp.
COMPUTER HAZARDS. Computer are used for a variety of purpose including painting, displaying, scanned photographic image, producing graphic for printing during fablic manufacture.
PROBLEMS DUE TO COMPUTER… Due to repititive task and uncomfortably arranged components. This result to predominants complaints, discomfort in the wrists, arms, shoulders and neck, and vision problems. Most of complains are of a minor nature but disabling injuries such a chronic tendinitis or carpal tunner syndrome are possible.
Risk due to exposure to dust. Short term exposure to cotton dust has caused bronchitis and acute byssionosis (also known as “brown lung” or “Monday morning fever”) Chronic exposure has caused lung airway obstraction (which reduce ventilatory capacity) and lead to disability and premature death.
Risk continue Among workers exposed to cotton dust, cigarette smokers have an increased risk of developing byssinosis. However the risk of developing byssinosis appear to be reduced for workers who are exposed to dust from washed cotton.
Signs and symptoms of exposure. For short term exposure (acute), exposure to cotton dust can produce a feeling of chest tightness, coughing, wheezing, phlegm, weakness, fever, chills, and breathing difficult (dyspnea). The symptoms can disappear following removal from exposure (during brief periods away from work) and can reappear following expossure.
Signs and symptoms of exposure Long term (chronic). Exposure to cotton dust can cause permanent and disabling breathing difficulties that include chronic bronchitis with emphysema.
Control of computer hazards. This can be through designing or fine turning the products. Users should take a break away from the screen periodically. Short break are more effective than long breaks every couple of hours. Proper arrangement of components and the user design solution for correct posture and visual comfort are the key methods. Computer work station components should be easy to adjust for the variety of task people involved.
Control of computer hazards cont… Eye strain may be prevented by taking periodic visual breaks, preventing glare and reflection and placing the top of the monitor so that it is eye level. Other exposure include some kind of radiation effects are possible ultraviolet, visible, infrared, radio frequency and microwave radiation emissions but no heath effect aready indentified.
Noise reduction and reduction of exposure. Noise is defined as sound without any agreeable music/ unwanted/ undesirable sound due to continuously running machines and generally exceeds the permissible level of 80dB. Effects of noise depend on frequency, intensity, nature of noise and duration of exposure.
Noise reduction cont… Effects include masking normal conversation, temporally hearing loss, injury to the ear structure, permanent hearing loss. Noise controll is divided in two types that are active control and passive control.
Active control This is through controll the noise from the machine due to its unwanted vibration in various levels of frequence and material to material friction. This is done through machine balance, material selection and machine overhauling. Machine balance: by balancing the machine they are divided into two types that is hard bearing and soft bearing.
Active control cont… The difference between them however is in the suspension and not the bearing. In hard bearing machine, balancing is done at frequence lower than the reasonancy frequence of the suspension. In soft bearing machine balancing is done at a frequency higher than the reasonance frequency of the suspension.
Active control cont… Proper material selection. This is for vibrating parts and which parts material to material frictions takes place as an example of metalic gear arrangement. That is metallic gear arrangement produces more noise compare to polymeric gear. For controlling noise the polymeric gears are more suitable rather metallic one.
Active control cont… Overhauling. This involves the controll of noise at source. This include periodic lublication is required in the zone of gears to gear arrangement, ball bearing and other rotational parts.
PASSIVE CONTROL This is control after emission of noise. Emitted noise can be controlled by two ways; one is by making casing around the noise source and another is hearing protection. The casing material include dumping material, barrier material and absorptive material at the gearbox. Dumping reduce the vibration level in a vibrating system through transformation into another form of energy.
Passive control cont… Barrier material reduce the amplitude of sound waves propargating in a certain direction.(they interfere with sound waves) Absorption material reduce the accoustic energy of sound waves passes through the material. They commonly used to often the acoustic environment of an enclosed volume by reducing the amlitude of reflected sound waves.
Passive control cont… If those fail rotation of workers, reduction of exposure hours, use of protective equipment like eye plugs, ear muffs and helmet.
Operation and method of controll of dust. During carding operation, mixing and blowing operations, bale breaking, manufacturing of cotton yard, and handling of cotton seed in the extractraction of cotton seed oil the dust is controlled through process enclosure, local exhaust ventilation, personal protective equipment. During cotton balling operations and weaving of textile containing cotton yarn, dust is controlled through general dilution and ventilation.
During raw cotton ginning, back pressing and havesting dust is controlled through local exhaust ventilation, personal protective equipment.
Method used control chemical hazards. Proper labeling and provision of material safety data sheet(MSDS) greet awareness. (pre education), protective equipment like groves and masks, ensure that all areas where chemicals are handled are easily cleanable with walls and floor which are sound and smooth, establish procedures for cleaning and dealing with spillages.
ERGONOMIC HAZARDS… Ergonomics is a science concerned with the ‘fit’ between people and their work. It puts people first, taking account of their capabilities and limitations. Ergonomics aims to make sure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker, in textile industry the worker are seated for prolonged periods, and repetitious motion of arms, wrists, hands and fingers, and often the entile body. This may produce pain and eventual repetitive strain injuries
CONTROL OF ERGONOMIC HAZARDS… Practicing shifts. Raised platforms to help operators reach badly located controls. Provide height adjustable chairs so individual operator can work at their preferred work height. Proper orientation of machine to prevent squatting posture.
PHYCHOSOCIAL FACTOR ERGOMICS. Boring, repetitive task, production pressure, stress, low pay, lack of recognition, angry, frustrated contribute to aggressive behavior, sabotage, poor physical and mental health and general lack of safety. Control measure is through good link and communication between the employee and employer on the complain raised.
REFERENCES Ergonomic Evolution blog.mht. Job and stress and heart disease, summer 1993 scientific solution. ICOH-Iternational commission on occupational Health and Medicine. 22-24 march 2010 or website, http//www.icohweb.org/site-new/ico-home page.asp. S.E.Smith “what does secretary do?. Encyclopedia of occupational health and safety, industries and health by Jeanemagerstellman, International labour office.
REFERENCE CONT… Noise control in textile machineries .mht. COSHH essentials easy steps to controll chemicals HSG 193. “An introduction to textile terms”, retneved august 6, 2006. A Summary of Health Hazard Evaluations: Issues Related to Occupational Exposure to Isocyanates, 1989 to 2002. US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-116, (2004, January), 1 MB PDF, 42 pages. Levy, B.S, and Wegman, D.H (eds): Occupational Heath: Recognizing and preventing work-related Disease little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1983.