Effects Of Global Warming On Weather


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  • Weather - the state of the atmosphere - considered on a daily basis - different from climate - climate is how a region is normally, seasonal, over a longer period of time - determinants: - temperature - pressure - wind - humidity - precipitation http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/weather.html
  • Basic Temperature – the measure of the average speed of air molecules - described as hot or cold - measured in degrees using a thermometer - temperature of the air depends on temperature of the surface below it - why temperature decreases as altitude increases Global warming - Greenhouse effect : sunlight (shortwave radiation) reaches Earth  some is reflected, some is absorbed and heats the Earth  absorbed sunlight re-emitted as infrared (longwave radiation)  greenhouse gases reflect some infrared which reheats the Earth and then is re-emitted - human and other activities increase greenhouse gas concentration  more gases absorb and re-emit infrared  adds more heat to the surface of the Earth  increase in temperature  global warming - 1990 was the hottest year in the last century, 1991 was the second - 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991 have been the hottest 6 years in the last century - the planet’s temperature has increased 0.5 degrees Celsius since 1900 - Northern Hemisphere will heat up more than the Southern Hemisphere because water absorbs more heat than land and there is more ocean in the south - predicted increase from 3 – 5 degrees Celsius by 2100 http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/weather.html http://www.geocities.com/TimesSquare/1848/global.html http://timeforchange.org/cause-and-effect-for-global-warming
  • Basic Pressure – an idea that scientists use to describe how gases and liquids “push” on things - this “push” comes from the movement of molecules and atoms - air pressure decreases as altitude increases - air moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure  wind - air moves away from high pressure , creating a hole  air from above moves in  sinking air evaporates from a condensed form (clouds) into water vapor - air moves into low pressure  air moves upwards  rising air condenses water vapor into a condensed form (clouds) - many different measures of pressure - pascal, kilopascal - bar, milibar - pounds per square inch - measured using a mercury barometer, an aneroid barometer, or a barograph - when talking about high and low atmospheric pressure, the measurement is all relative Global Warming - increased land temperatures  increased air temperatures  air becomes less dense  hot air rises  low air pressure  “thermal low”  creation of clouds , water condensation into water droplets or ice crystals  increased precipitation - the areas around the equator , the “tropics”  intertropical convergence zone  receives more heat  large amounts of warm, rising air  low pressure  humidity in rising air condenses  contributes to large thunderstorms http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/weather.html http://www.usatoday.com/weather/tg/whighlow/whighlow.htm http://www.usatoday.com/weather/resources/askjack/2003-03-18-archive-air-pressure_x.htm Basic Wind – moving air - warm air rises, cool air sinks - Coriolis Effect: winds move to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, winds move to the left in the Southern Hemisphere - prevailing winds: a type of wind that usually blows into a region - ex. Trade Winds flow steadily towards the equator - ex. Jet Streams are narrow zones of strong winds in the upper troposphere - Beaufort Scale: shows different speeds and names of winds - calm air  breezes  strong winds, gales - directional winds - Easterly, east  west - Westerly, west  east Global Warming - land heats faster than water  air above land warms and rises quicker than air above water  cool winds from above water move over land  “sea breezes” - intertropical convergence zone  a lot of cool air moves in to replace the large amount of warm rising air  tropical Trade Winds - the air that rises moves towards the poles  some settles in the mid-latitudes to create high air pressure -  some continues to the polar regions  turned by Earth’s rotation  easterly and westerly winds http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/weather.html http://www.usatoday.com/weather/resources/askjack/2003-03-18-archive-air-pressure_x.htm Basic Humidity – the presence of water vapor in the air - water and ice condense into water vapor Global warming - increased ocean temperatures  more water condensed from oceans and land  more water vapor  more humidity http://www.w-dhave.inet.co.th/humidity.html http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5i76P2MdxqZpEOyfiHRbdcJ38_K-g
  • Basic Precipitation – any form of water that falls to the Earth - drizzle, rain, hail, snow, sleet, etc. - opposite is evaporation – when water goes from the liquid phase to the gas phase Global warming - more intense hydrological cycle - overall increase in rain and snowfall - generally more precipitation in winter - evaporated moisture moving towards the poles (in mid-high latitudes) - more evaporation in summer - predicted patterns - increased precipitation in polar and subpolar regions - decreased precipitation in mid-latitudes of both hemispheres - increased precipitation around the equator - decreased precipitation in the subtropics - increases in rainfall will come in the form of more intense storms rather than more rainy days - increased air temperature  evaporation  increased water vapor in the air  not necessarily more frequent rainfall, but more moisture for storms - warmer atmosphere  hold more water vapor  more heavy precipitation  extreme events http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/weather.html http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/science_and_impacts/impacts/early-warning-signs-of-global-3.html http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GlobalWarming/global_warming_update6.php http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/235402/global-warming/274848/Precipitation-patterns http://www.geocities.com/csango80/gwweb04.htm
  • Floods - greater evaporation + more precipitation  intense precipitation  flooding Droughts - warmer surface temperatures + less precipitation  greater evaporation  less soil moisture  droughts Heat waves - increased land temperatures Extreme winter cold and snow fall - evaporated moisture moving towards the poles  increased precipitation in winter  snowfall Tornados - wind movement? Extreme storms tropical cyclones/hurricanes/typhoons - warmer ocean and air  increased rate of evaporation and condensation to make a storm  increased rate and strength of hurricanes - increased humidity  worse tropical cyclones http://www.tropical-rainforest-animals.com/Global-Warming-Effects.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/235402/global-warming/274848/Precipitation-patterns http://www.geocities.com/csango80/gwweb04.htm http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5i76P2MdxqZpEOyfiHRbdcJ38_K-g Hurricanes – a tropical storm that has sustained wind speeds of over 74 mph - categorized in severity from 1 – 5 - power from the heat of the ocean - warmer oceans  more intense and more frequent hurricanes - more numerous and intense since 1995 Wildfires - increased temperatures  less rainfall  drier trees and plants  better fuel for fires - warmer winter temperatures  more tree killing beetles and insects survive  more dead, flammable trees - snowmelt occurs earlier in the year  dries trees and plants in the spring and summer - wildfires give off the equivalent of 40% of the carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels  more global warming  more wildfires - annual number of wildfires is 6x greater after 1986 than the average before 1986 - “wildfire season” (summer) has lengthened - past few years, wildfires have burned millions of acres Droughts - increased temperatures  greater rate of evaporation - in areas where bodies of water are temporary, their availability is decreasing - in areas of dry soil, little water is lost to evaporation  no rain clouds formed  less rain  even dryer soil - expected to effect the interior parts of large continents , like agricultural areas  crop failure, starvation Heat waves - increased temperatures  increased maximum temperatures - summer 2003 was the warmest ever  27,000 died - chances for a fatal heat wave have doubled - changes for a fatal heat wave will increase 100 fold in the next 30 years Flooding - increased temperatures  increased rate of evaporation  increased formation of rain clouds with more water vapor  increased rainfall - El Niño: periods of high temperatures in the eastern Pacific ocean - increased rainfall closer to the equator, like southern US and Peru - decreased rainfall in places like northern US, parts of Brazil, Asia, Africa, most of Australia - increased temperatures  longer and more intense El Nino seasons  more intense droughts and floods in affected areas http://www.effectsofglobalwarming.com/Extreme-weather-caused-by-global-warming-and-the-effects-on-our-environment.html
  • Uncertainties - how much humans are contributing to the accumulation of greenhouse gases  the amount of global warming - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said warming trend is “unlikely to be entirely natural in origin” - “There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.” - how much increases in greenhouse gases are contributing to global warming - other factors contribute to increasing temperatures: - natural climate variations - changes in sun’s energy - cooling effects of pollutant aerosols - how much and how fast global temperatures will rise - IPPC project further global warming from 1.4 to 5.8 degreed Celsius by 2100 - the low end of this projection “would probably be greater than any seen in the last 10,000 years” - other factors: - uncertainties in greenhouse gas emissions - possible cooling effects of atmospheric particles like sulfate - climate’s response to changes in atmosphere - more accurate predictions for changes on a large scale vs. a small scale - large scale: global temperatures, precipitation changes, average sea level rise - small scale: local temperature and precipitation changes, altered weather patterns, soil moisture changes - IPCC said “complex systems, such as the climate system, can respond in non-linear ways and produce surprises.” - ex. hurricanes and other intense storms  evidence that they will be stronger  unsure if they will be more frequent - ex. how global warming will effect El Nino http://www.teachervision.fen.com/global-warming/resource/44462.html
  • Effects Of Global Warming On Weather

    1. 1. Group 4 Project Megan Fernandes Adam Yang Pavadee (Par) Jitngamplang Sawinee (Ae’ja) Galaputh
    2. 2. <ul><li>Aspect of global warming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WEATHER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aspect of ISB’s carbon footprint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WASTE MANAGEMENT </li></ul></ul>Group 4 Project
    3. 3. What is weather <ul><li>State of the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precipitation </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Temperature Greenhouse Effect - correlation between increasing carbon emissions and temperatures
    5. 5. Pressure <ul><li>1: high pressure  air descending </li></ul><ul><li>2: high pressure at surface </li></ul><ul><li>3: low pressure at surface </li></ul><ul><li>4: low pressure  air rising </li></ul>
    6. 6. Precipitation <ul><li>Any form of water that falls to Earth </li></ul>
    7. 7. Extreme Events
    8. 8. Recent Examples of Extreme Weather <ul><li>Hurricane Katrina 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclone Nargis in Burma 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fires in Australia 2008 - 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Heat wave in Europe 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Drought in United States 2005-2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Flash floods and rise in river levels in parts of England and Wales 2007 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Uncertainties <ul><li>“ Complex systems, such as the climate system, can respond in non-linear ways and produce surprises.” </li></ul>