The curricular offering of the following principles/philosophies of education are focused on specific courses because each principles/philosophies has its particular aims, beliefs, concepts, and teaching methods to guide them in achieving their goals.
IDEALISM The subjects offered are essential for MENTAL, MORAL and SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT, to wit: PHILOSOPHY THEOLOGY HISTORY ARTS MATHEMATICS LITERATURE VALUES EDUCATION GMRC CHRISTIAN LIVING EDUCATION develops the individual spiritually , mentally and morally , thus education contributes to the development of mind and self , thereby, the school should emphasize intellectual abilities , moral , judgments , aesthetics , self-realization , individual freedom and responsibility and self-control . Students must be encouraged to build-up knowledge and critical thinking. It is a fact that learning is a product of the learner’s own activity The learning process must be made more efficient by the stimulation which comes from the teacher and the environment of the school In this regard, the teacher must be highly communicative using different teaching strategies, chief source of inspiration and knowledge, among others, thus, the school must encourage teachers to use effective teaching styles that would fit in to what the school envisions for the learners.
REALISM The curricular offerings for this philosophy are: BIOGRAPHY NATURAL SCIENCE SOCIAL SCIENCE ARTS POETRY LITERATURE These consist of different related concepts that constitute the structure of the discipline which is said to be organized, separated and systemically arranged subject matter . The scientific methods and problem solving approach are used, to wit: SYNTHESIZING OBSERVING FACTORS RELATED TO PROBLEMS TESTING HYPOTHESIS It provides the student with the essential knowledge he will need to survive in the natural world. The teacher must possess a body of knowledge and is capable of transmitting it to students. In other words, teaching must not be indoctrinating but learning must be interactive. In this way, the teacher must maintain discipline by reward and control the student by activity.
PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM Combination of academic and vocational disciplines which are integrated and based on the problems of society. This is particularly for social efficiency that train students to continuously and actively quest for information and production of new ideas needed to adjust to an ever-changing society. The curricular offering in this philosophy is a
PERENNIALISM The curricular offerings in this philosophy is focused on ARTS AND SCIENCES GREAT IDEAS OR UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES AND MORAL AESTHETIC RELIGION AND INTELLECTUAL TOPICS Perrenialists believe that one should teach the things of everlasting importance to all people everywhere. They believe that the most important topics develop a person Since details of fact change constantly, these cannot be the most important. Therefore, one should teach principles, not facts. Since people are human, one should teach first about humans, not machines or techniques. Since people are people first, and workers second if at all, one should teach liberal topics first, not vocational topics.
PROGRESSIVISM It has no structured curriculum wherein it is child centered which give emphasis on life experiences. This philosophy also focuses on the four (4) H’s HAND HEALTH HEAD HEART for physical, emotional, social and manipulative skills . It focuses more upon the child’s learning, than upon curriculum content of the teacher’s pedagogy. TWO MAIN APPROACHES OF PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION 1.‘CHILD-CENTERED’ 2.‘SOCIAL-RECONSTRUCTIONISM’ Education which aims to give children the freedom to develop naturally in a democratic environment 2.‘SOCIAL-RECONSTRUCTIONISM’ focuses on a curriculum highlighting social reform as the aim of education Schools under this philosophy are focused on the needs of pupils through tolerant discipline, encouragement of the arts and crafts, using manual work as an aspect of physical education, and simplicity of living . New teaching methods are encouraged, ‘open plan’ school architecture and more imaginative use of space in all types of primary schools. It also promotes a child-centered classroom approaches.
ESSENTIALISM The curriculum of this philosophy is focused on core skills like reading , writing , and arithmetic . Teaching of essential facts and concepts on Science , Literature , Health and P.E .; Hard Sciences , technical and vocational courses ; A r t s for aesthetic expression ; and Values of discipline , hard work , and respect for authority . ESSENTIALIST believes that there exist a critical core of information and skill that an educated person must have the aim of education is to teach the young the essentials they need to live well in the modern world Teachers must be expert in content knowledge, teaches essential knowledge and maintains task-oriented focus It will develop individuals to perform justly, skillfully, and magnanimously It helps individuals to adjust to cultural demands and live together in peace
EXISTENTIALISM The curricular offerings in this philosophy are: ETHICS/VALUES SCIENCES HUMANITIES PHILOSOPHY ARTS FOR AESTHETIC EXPRESSION HISTORY LITERATURE MATHEMATICS The concern of existentialism is to give an account of what it is like to exist as a human being in the world. The issue of freedom and choice are of crucial importance in existentialism. This philosophy maintains that values which have been discovered can be adopted for one’s life.
RECONSTRUCTIONISM The curricular offerings in this philosophy are: EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES SOCIAL CHANGE PHILOSOPHY NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL/GLOBAL ISSUES SOCIETAL NEEDS AND PROBLEMS This curriculum is cutting edge information needed to correct current societal problems and build a new society. To make a better world, and prepare for the future. Reconstructionist insists on promoting character education by making group decisions in the light of the consequences of those decisions. They prefer the group problem-solving-project methodology. People are responsible for social conditions and can improve the quality of human life by changing the social order. Society is in need of constant reconstruction. Such social change involves both reconstruction of education and the use of education in reconstructing the society. It does not really seek to find a new system of education, but one that worked well in the past.
Naturalism Stands for education in accordance with nature. Application of natural laws to the educational process Education is the process of acquiring knowledge, habits, interest, attitudes, skills and abilities.
Nationalism Developed the state-controlled and state-supported public school systems that are found throughout the world today. Development of responsible citizen, loyalty and patrolism.
Developmentalism unfold the natural capacities of the child to enhance development. Social activities, drills, experiencing lessons, travel, trainings, etc.