Invaders Of The Body

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Invaders Of The Body

  1. 1. ANTIGENS: TRIGGERS OF AQUIRED IMMUNITY
  2. 2. PATHOGEN. Organism that cause a disease. VIRULENCE. Ability to cause disease. PATHOGEN. Organism that cause a disease PRIMARY PATHOGEN. Organism that cause a disease almost every time it invades a healthy individual. SECONDARY PATHOGEN. Organism that cause a disease only if the immune response is impaired.
  3. 6. Pinchuk: Schaum’s Outline of Theory & Problems of Immunology. The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004
  4. 8. ANTIGEN ( Anti body gen erator) Antigen (Ag) Ab
  5. 9. <ul><li>ANTIBODY </li></ul><ul><li>(Ab = Anti gen b inding) </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies do not bind to the whole agent </li></ul><ul><li>Binds to one of many molecules (Ag) </li></ul><ul><li>Many for one organism </li></ul><ul><li>Binds to a restricted part of the Ag (Epitope) </li></ul><ul><li>Ag has many epitopes (different or repeated) </li></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>ANTIBODY </li></ul><ul><li>(Ab = A ntigen b inding) </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies do not bind to the whole agent </li></ul><ul><li>Binds to one of many molecules (Ag) </li></ul><ul><li>Many for one organism </li></ul><ul><li>Binds to a restricted part of the Ag (Epitope) </li></ul><ul><li>Ag has many epitopes (different or repeated) </li></ul>
  7. 11. Flagellum H Ag Pili F Ag Capsule K Ag Cell wall O Ag Cell membrane Ribonucleo- protein Structure of a bacterium and the localization of important Ag Cell sap, enzymes
  8. 12. 0 Ag Lípid A Porin Cell membrane Cell wall polysaccharide Peptidoglycan (*NAG, NAM) Cell membrane KDO The basic structure of cell walls NAG= N -acetyl glucosamine NAM= N -acetyl muramic acid Gram-positive Gram-negative
  9. 13. Envelope (lipoproteins glycoproteins) Core (nucleic acid) Capsomers (good Ag) The structure of a virus (important Ag)
  10. 14. NONMICROBIAL ANTIGENS
  11. 15. CELL-SURFACE ANTIGENS Blood group Ag AB O RBC A A B B Rh Rh Factor (Rhesus macacus) A +/- B +/- AB +/- O +/-
  12. 16. CELL-SURFACE ANTIGENS MHC I Endogenous Ag MHC II Exogenous g MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX Nucleated cell
  13. 17. WHAT MAKES A GOOD ANTIGEN? Antigenicity Chemical Stability <ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate vs. Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denatured vs. Native </li></ul></ul>Foreignness Protein. Lipids. CHO’s Nucleic acids. Size Host genetics Route of administration Dose Adjuvant
  14. 19. DR. POLLY MATZINGER An innate sense of Danger The immune system has two questions to answer when faced with a potential pathogen. 1. Shall I respond?? 2. how does the immune system know what kind of response to make? Galadriel Mirkwood
  15. 20. 1 nm Glucose Angiotensin 1.03 kDa Albumin 66 kDa Inmunoglobulin G 160 kDa Fibrinogen 400 kDa Inmunoglobulin M 900 kDa Relative sizes of several Ag
  16. 21. EPITOPE OR ANTIGENIC DETERMINANT (immunodominant region of a molecule) Microorganism (huge Ag collection) epitope
  17. 23. HAPTENS (Greek haptein = to grasp or fasten) DINITROPHENOL = (DNP) NOT IMMUNOGENIC BECAUSE < 1,000 Da
  18. 24. Native epitope Carrier protein Several epitopes attached to a peptide chain. DNP Hapten molecule
  19. 26. PENICILLIN EXAMPLES OF HAPTENS Chronic dermatitis, hair loss, and depigmentation.
  20. 27. EXAMPLES OF HAPTENS POISON IVY ( Rhus radicans ) = allergic contact dermatitis
  21. 28. EXAMPLES OF HAPTENS CHROME NICKEL
  22. 29. EXAMPLES OF HAPTENS Resins or latex
  23. 30. Bacteria or Food carrying epitope A Group A blood transfusion Severe transfusion reaction Food or bacteria Ag in diet carry epitopes that cross-react with blood group A. Animal of group blood O makes Ab to A epitope despite never having received group A red cells. Blood group O Ab to blood group A Ouch!!!

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