Phrasal Verbs And Prepositional PhrasesPresentation Transcript
PHRASAL VERBS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
1. A phrasal verb is a verb plus a preposition or adverb which creates a different meaning from the original verb.
Example: I ran into my teacher at the movies last night.
run + into = meet He ran away when he was 15. run + away = leave home
2. Some phrasal verbs are intransitive. An intransitive verb cannot be followed by an object.
Example: He suddenly showed up . "show up" cannot take an object
3. Some phrasal verbs are transitive. A transitive verb can be followed by an object.
Example: I made up the story . "story" is the object of "make up"
4. Some transitive phrasal verbs are separable. The object is placed between the verb and the preposition.
Example: I talked my mother into letting me borrow the car. She looked the phone number up .
5. Some transitive phrasal verbs are inseparable. The object is placed after the preposition.
Example: I ran into an old friend yesterday. They are looking into the problem .
6. Some transitive phrasal verbs can take an object in both places.
Example: I looked the number up in the phone book. I looked up the number in the phone book.
Heads of Prepositional Phrases
Prepositions first function as the heads of prepositional phrases. The head of a phrase is the defining word type of that phrase. For example, the heads of noun phrases are nouns, and the heads of verb phrases are verbs. Examples of prepositional phrases include in the oven and during the storm . The heads of those prepositional phrases are the prepositions in and during . The functions of the prepositions in and during are therefore the heads of prepositional phrases.
Modifiers of Phrases
Prepositional phrases secondly function as modifiers and complements of noun phrases, adjective phrases, and verb phrases. Words and phrases that function as modifiers modify or define other words and phrases. For example, the prepositional phrase with blonde hair modifies or describes the noun phrase the little girl in the phrase the little girl with blonde hair by describing what color of hair the little girl has.
Prepositional phrases also function as modifiers of adjective phrases as in on the walls in The paint was green on the walls or near the bathtub as in The floor was wet near the bathtub .
Prepositional phrases likewise function as modifiers of verb phrases as in during the wedding in The woman cried during the wed d ing or after dinner as in The couple danced after dinner .
Complements of Phrases
Words and phrases that function as complements act to complete the meaning of other words and phrases. The main difference between modifiers and complements is that modifiers are optional and can be replaced by any number of other prepositional phrases while complements are often required. For example, the prepositional phrase of books functions as a complement in the sentence Librarians are fond of books . The prepositional phrase of books is a complement because the adjective fond requires a prepositional phrase to complete its meaning. Therefore, one can say Librarians are fond of books but not just * Librarians are fond . Prepositional phrases also function as complements of verb phrases as in on her babysitter as in The woman relies on her babysitter and as complements of noun phrases as in of the book as in He is the writer of the book .