Scientific study of human society, it’s origin, structure, function, and direction The word Sociology was taken from two foreign words: Socius a Latin term which means companion or associate Logos a Greek term for study
1. Sociology is an independent science.2. It is abstract not concrete.3. Sociology is a social science not a physical science.4. Sociology is rational and empirical5. Sociology can be a pure science and applied science.6. Sociology is a general science not a special science.7. Sociology is generalizing not individualizing.8. Sociology is categorical not a normative.
One of the major goals of this perspective is to identify underlying, recurring patterns of influences on social behavior. The sociological perspective goes beyond identifying patterns of social behavior; it also attempts to provide explanations for such patterns.
1. Pure science. As a pure science, it aims to provide knowledge about human society, not the utilization of that knowledge.2. Categorical discipline. As categorical discipline, it is a body of knowledge about human society, and not a system of ideas and values.3. Synthesizing science. As synthesizing science, it tends to come up with certain generalizations about human interaction and association, about the nature, form, content and structure of human groups and societies
Sociology started when people first began to make observations about each other’s behavior. Sociology as a science is a body of organized, verified knowledge which has been secured through scientific investigation. Sociology, as a science, rejects myth, hearsay, folklore, and wishful thinking and bases its inclusion on empirical evidence. All natural phenomena can be studied scientifically, if we use the scientific approaches. Any kind of behavior affecting the environment can be a subject for scientific approaches.
The Evolutionary Approach – the earliest theoretical approach was based on the work of Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer. This approach seemed to offer a satisfying explanation of how human groups come to exist, grow, and develop. Sociologist using this approach as a frame of reference look for patterns of change. The Interactionist Approach – suggests no grand theories of society since society and social and political institutions are conceptual abstractions , and only people and their interactions can be studied directly.
The Functionalist Approach – views society as an organized network of cooperating groups operating orderly according to generally accepted norms. The Conflict Approach – view society as one that is held together through the power of dominant groups. These theorist claim that the “share values” of functionalists do not really exist, an artificial consensus in which dominant groups or classes impose these values and rules upon the rest of the people.
To ensure maximum consistency and efficiency, there are certain steps that must be observed in researching on a problem.1. The researcher selects a problem area and specifies research questions.2. The researcher examines and researches data bases to review existing results and define terms.3. The researcher selects a research design.
4. The researcher determines the research method. This stage includes the three common aspects the researcher must determine and these are:a. Where and when the research will occur.b. With whom specifically the research will be done.c. How they will analyze the information and data collected.
5. The researcher describes and selects the respondents to be used in the study.6. The researcher selects and tests to score the pupil’s writing.7. The researcher conducts the study.8. The researcher analyzes the data and determines the implications of researches.9. The researcher publishes the results of his study.
The steps in a scientific research are: 1. Define the problem. A problem is needed and is worthy of being studied and undertaken through the methods of science. 2. Review the related literature. It would be a waste of time to investigate a certain problem which has already been undertaken. 3. Formulate hypothesis. The hypothesis is an account defining a particular relationship between two or more variables.
4. Develop a research design. A research design is a plan that must be carefully developed in order to prove hypothesis. It is an outline of what should be undertaken, what data will be sought, where and how they will be collected, processed, and systematically analyzed.5. Collect the data. The data to be collected should be in line with the research design.6. Analyze the data. After collating the data, we classify, synthesize, tabulate, and compare the data, making whatever tests and computations are necessary to help find the result.
7. Draw conclusions. The conclusions will reflect back to the hypothesis and, on the basis of the conclusions, we either accept or reject the hypothesis.
A case study is defined as an intensive study of a person, group, organization, institution, or problem. The case study enables us to examine a situation in depth. This method has one limitation, though, and that is the difficulty of making valid generalizations (on the basis of one case) which is an important part of the scientific method. The case study is also known as the scientific biography, the case history, case work or diary of development.
The schedule is a list of questions that the sociologist asks a person being surveyed is an interview situation. With this, the sociologist can obtain more accurate answers because he can interpret facial expressions, tone of voice, and gestures. Furthermore, he can ask the individual to repeat the answers to explain them more fully. The disadvantage of the schedule is that interviewers are so time consuming that a large sample is difficult to obtain.
The questionnaire is a list of questions that is filled out by the person being surveyed. Sociologist sometimes use both tools- the schedule, to get more accurate answers from a small sample and the questionnaire, to get less accurate and less specific answers from a large sample. The most frequently used method to obtain information about the social world is the survey research. This quantitative technique involves systematically asking people about their attitudes, feelings ideas, opinions, values, or behavior by using a survey.
If the questions concern personal information about age, income, and sex life, for example, the respondents may not answer honestly. If the questions or responses are highly structured, the results of the survey may not reflect the actual belief of people being questioned. The difficulty of the respondents to interpret the questions correctly.