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  • 1. The Treaty of Versailles By: Mike Skeath & Kim Harmon
  • 2. Signing of the Treaty
    • Signed the treaty:
    • Great Britain (David Lloyd George)- was privately concerned that Russian communism would spread to Germany and he thought that they were being overly punished with the reparations
    • France (Clemenceau)- wanted Germany to have as little power as possible
    • Germany- had the choice of signing the treaty or being taken over by the Big Three
  • 3. Signing of the Treaty Cont.
    • Did not sign the treaty: The United States of America (Woodrow Wilson)- he wanted to isolate America as much as possible from European affairs
    • Republican party- Held most of congress and wanted no involvement with the Treaty of Versailles
  • 4. The Treaty
    • Took about 7 months to create the treaty
    • Reviewed by Germany on May 7, 1919
    • Signed on June 28, 1919
    • Signed at the palace of Versailles near Paris, France
    • 15 Parts
    • 440 Articles and Annexes
  • 5. The Guilt Clause
    • “ The Allied and Associated Governments affirm and Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.”
    • Article 231 of treaty - Arguably the most controversial clause in treaty. Many historians argue that it blames Germany for all problems - Others deny this, saying that it doesn't say that at all.
  • 6. Important Articles
    • Article 257: Former German territories and oversea colonies will not need to pay reparations
    • Article 159: The German military must be demobilized and reduced
    • Article 160: By March 31, 1920 the German military must be reduced to 100,000 men
    • Article 181 (&190): The German Navy must not exceed 36 ships and have no submarines
    • Article 198: The German military will not be allowed to have an air force
  • 7. Important Articles Cont.
    • Article 34: Belgium will be given the territories of Eupen & Malmedy
    • Article 48: The Saar basin will be assigned to France for a period of 15 years (plebiscite will determine it’s allegiance)
    • Article 51: Territories that were annexed into Germany will be returned to French Sovereignty
    • Article 109: The line that divides Germany and Denmark shall be moved depending on the wishes of the population
    • Article 119: Oversea German colonies will be renounced
  • 8. Why is the Treaty Important?
    • It reorganized different territories and countries
    • Stated who was at fault for war
    • Determined how reparations will be calculated
    • Created the League of Nations
    • Lowered amount of troops in German military
  • 9. The Other Treaties
    • The Treaty of St Germain 10th September 1919- Austria
    • The Treaty of Trianon 4th June 1920- Hungary
    • The Treaty of Neuilly 27th November 1919- Bulgaria
    • The Treaty of Sevres 20th August 1920- Turkey
  • 10.  
  • 11. Changes to the Map of Europe
  • 12.  
  • 13. Was the Treaty Carried Out?
    • League of Nations was created
    • All territories and oversea colonies were annexed from Germany and distributed accordingly
    • Germany did not join Austria as one state
    • Germany decreased the size of its army to 100,000 (soldiers were put in reserves)
    • Germany did pay the reparations except for the years 1922 & 1933
    • Germany did reduce its navy to 36 boats & no submarines*
    • Germany had no air force*
    • *soldiers were trained how to use planes and submarines (not against treaty)
  • 14. Effects on Germany
    • Felt cheated because they thought they would be signing the fourteen points treaty made by Wilson
    • Germany became poor/did not industrialize much
    • Germany despised the Big Three
    • Treaty compelled Germans to leave their homes made in Russia, Poland, & etc.
    • The great depression along with the reparations strained Germany’s economy
  • 15. Adolf Hitler
    • Adolf Hitler bitterly resented the Treaty of Versailles
    • 1933- told the Big Three that reparations would not be paid (became chancellor)
    • 1934-1945- was titled head of state (dictator)
    • 1936- sent troops into Rhineland
    • 1939-1945- Started World War 2 by invading Poland
  • 16. Bibliography
    • Ellis, Elisabeth G and Esler, Anthony. World History: The Modern Era. p 474-475, 551-552, 563..New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2009. Print.
    • “ The Treaty of Versailles.” Trueman, Chris. 2000-2010. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_versailles.htm
    • Marks, Sally. The Illusion of Peace. International Relations in Europe. 1918-1933. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 1976. p.13. Print.
    • “ Wars and Battles, World War I.” Online Highways LLC. 2001-2010. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1334.html
    • “ The Treaty of Versailles - 28th June 1919.” Fuller, Richard. 1999-2010. 13 January 2010. http://www.rpfuller.com/gcse/history/2.html
    • “ World War One - The Treaty of Versailles.” n.p. 2000-2010. 4 March 2010. http://www.historyonthenet.com/WW1/versailles.htm
    • “ Primary Documents - Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919.” Duffy, Michael. 200-2009. 22 August 2009. http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/versailles.htm
    • “ Treaty of Versailles, 1919.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Washington D.C. April 1 2010. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005425
    • N.p. n.d. n.pag. The Treaty of Versailles. http://www.johndclare.net/peace_treaties4.htm
    • “ Historical Map of Europe in 1914.” Kent, Emerson. 2010. http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/europe_1914.htm
    • “ Historical Map of WWI: Europe in 1919.” Kent, Emerson. 2010. http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/europe_1919.htm
    • “ That Watercolor Painting…It’s Magnificent, Would That Be A Hitler?… But Of Course!.” Pearson, Chris. April 18 2009. http://thebsreport.wordpress.com/2009/04/18/that-watercolor-paintingits-magnificent-would-that-be-a-hitler-but-of-course/
    • National Archives of Australia, Treaty of Versailles 1919 (including Covenant of the League of Nations), http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=23 , 20 May 2010.