Sensitivity Training The Consultancy ProcessSkill Development Techniques
Sensitivity Training• Sensitivity Training is a form of training that claims to make people more aware of their own prejudices, and more sensitive to others. According to its critics, it involves the use of psychological techniques with groups that its critics
History• Alfred J Marrow, Kurt Lewin laid the foundations for sensitivity training in a series of workshops he organised in 1946 to carry out a change experiment, in response to a request from the Director of the Connecticut State Interracial Commission.• This led to the founding of the National Training Laboratories in Bethel, Maine in 1947. Kurt Lewin, who met Eric Trist in 1933, influenced the work of the London Tavistock Clinic, both in its work with soldiers during the second world war• later work with the Journal Human Relations jointly founded by a partnership of the Tavistock Institute and Lewins group at MIT.
Definition• Training designed to make people more aware of group dynamics and their own behavior, interpersonal traits, and role within a group• Sensitivity training involves such groupings as --T groups (T for training), encounter groups, laboratory training groups, and human awareness groups are all names usually associated with what is known as sensitivity training.
• Sensitivity training is about making people understand about themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility.• Social sensitivity in one word is empathy. It is ability of an individual to sense what others feel and think from their own point of view.• Behavioral flexibility is ability to behave suitably in light of understanding.
Procedure of Sensitivity Training• 1. Unfreezing the old values -It requires that the trainees become aware of the inadequacy of the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The first step consists of a small procedure:•• An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.• Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for its guidance• But the trainer refuses to provide guidance and assume leadership• Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty• Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees• Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize the alternative ways of dealing with the situation
• 2. Development of new values - With the trainers support, trainees begin to examine their interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and values. This process constitutes the second step in the change process of the development of these values.•• 3. Refreezing the new ones - This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.•
Goals of Sensitivity Training• While the emphases, styles and specific goals of the multitude of sensitivity training programs vary, there does seem to be some consensus as to general goals. These include:• 1. Increased understanding, insight, and self awareness about ones own behavior and its impact on others, including the ways in which others interpret ones behavior.• 2. Increased understanding and sensitivity about the behavior of others, including better interpretation of both verbal and nonverbal clues, which increases awareness and understanding of what the other person is thinking and feeling.• 3. Better understanding and awareness of group and intergroup processes, both those that facilitate and those that inhibit group functioning.
• 4. Increased diagnostic skills in interpersonal and intergroup situations. For the authors, the accomplishments of the first three objectives provide the basic tools for accomplishing the fourth objective.•• 5. Increased ability to transform learning into action, so that real life interventions will be more successful in increasing member effectiveness, satisfaction, output, or effectiveness.•• 6. Improvement in individuals ability to analyze their own interpersonal behavior, as well as to learn how to help themselves and others with whom they come in contact to achieve more satisfying, rewarding, and effective interpersonal relationships.
Outcomes of sensitivity training• The outcomes they depict (self, role, and organization) are only possibilities, and cannot be guaranteed for everyone attending a sensitivity training program.• This is because some participants do not learn or learn very little from a T group experience, others learn some things, and others learn a considerable amount and variety of things and because programs vary so much in terms of their nature and goals.
The Consultancy Process• we need to have in mind a consultancy process that we intend to progress through.• we need it as a game-plan both for yourself and the client. Not just because it is tidy, but because it helps you to manage the client relationship.
• Task directed• Help to under stand what is going around him, within him, between him and other people.• The consultant guide or coach the client to solve his own problem.• Consultant work jointly with client.
The one that we use envisages anassignment as progressing through five broad stages:
• Entry - where one builds the initial relationship with the client and carries out a survey or scoping to establish what the assignment is about, what it should aim to achieve, the likely time and effort required, and possible risks and difficulties.• Diagnosis - gathering information and ideas to arrive at options and a plan of action• Contracting - where one agrees with the client what the task is, what the consultants role is, what the clients role is, and how the work should be tackled.
• Intervention - taking actions to deliver the results, be it a report or organizing the changes.• Withdrawal - ensuring that the client organization can carry on without you and leaving the ground clear for your future involvement
Skill Development Techniques• Skills they are leadership quality, crisis management, stress management, decision skills, and analytical skills in the organization. Key skills are not specific in the curriculum but can be developed and used in wide range of situation.• Types of Skills:• There are two types of skills First one is - Skills that can be transferred. It includes IT skills, motivating skills team working etc., These skills help an individual in all aspects of life. Second one is that skills that can be acquired. Those skills can be added or developed in our life.
• Importance of Professional Skills :• Skill development is the one focusing on identifying the present skills, values and learning styles and focuses on the areas for future development.• 1. Skill development is helping in setting obtainable and realistic goals. 2.Skill development is important to update the skills related to the profession. 3. Professional development guides the persons to evolve as an effective leader in the organization 4. Skill development is motivating the professionals to attain the level of excellence in their own field. 5. A sense of positive thinking is created in skill development.
Techniques of improving the Skills• Role Playing is an exercise which offers an opportunity to learn the concepts and the like.• Training imparts Competency to an individual. .The benefits of training is that it provides deep knowledge and acquiring leadership. The skill development training programme is ongoing and continuous, collaborative• Affinity technique is the one in which the members of the group try to work together towards a common goal.• Some other methods are Coaching, Counseling, Mentoring, Professional bodies, Chairing meetings, Management Meetings, Decision tree.• Besides that brain storming technique, team building exercise, communication skill exercise, decision making exercise are other skill development techniques to improve the personal and also professional.
• Personal Skill Audit:• It is the one producing the personal skill profile of the individuals. It is giving a clear idea of the gap of skills lacking and skills to be acquired. The skill audit is done by the following ways. 1. The individual is asked to attend the questionnaire to find out the preferred learning styles with their associated weakness and strength. 2. Next important step is personal planning to make him more aware and develop as a learned. This is future plan 3. Compiling a personalized portfolio of the individuals.• This shows the skills already acquired and the skills to be acquired. So the gap between the two is the skills to be learnt.