2. Water Pollution• Pure Water:- Pure water is that water which contains only two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen.• Pure water is a water from a source that has removed all impurities.• Distilled water is the most common form of pure water.• Pure water can be used for cooking, drinking, scientific studies and laboratories.
3. Distilled Water• Distilled pure water is the water that is produced by distillation, this water is boiled and the stream is then condensed into a container to get distilled water.
4. De-ionized Water• De-ionized water is the cheaper imitation of distilled water. This type of pure water is obtained by removing all the mineral, ions such as calcium, copper and iron.• The deionization process is a physical process that uses ion-exchange resins that removes the mineral salts from water.
5. Wholesome water• Water which is fit to use for drinking, cooking, food preparation or washing without any potential danger to human health.• In other words, wholesome water is that water which is not chemically pure, but does not contain any thing which can be harmful to human health.
6. Palatable Water• The water which is tasteful for drinking and aesthetically pure, is known as “ Palatable water”.
7. Potable water• The water which is suitable for public water supply is known as potable water.• The water which has both the characteristics i.e. of „wholesome water‟ and „palatable water‟ is known as potable water.
8. Polluted Water• The water which consists of undesirable substances which make it unfit for drinking and domestic use, is known as „ Polluted Water‟.
9. Contaminated Water• The Water containing Pathogenic organisms is called as “ Contaminated Water”.• The contaminated water is also polluted but the polluted water may not be contaminated.
10. Effluent• Effluent is an outflow of water from a natural body of water or from human made structure.• Effluent as defined by USEPA “ Waste water treated or untreated- that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer or industrial outfall generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters.
11. Water Quality• Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of any human need or purpose.
12. Water Pollution• Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of water through natural or human activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use.• Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put to many uses. It is used for drinking, domestic and municipal uses, agricultural, irrigation, industries, navigation, recreation. The used water becomes contaminated and is called waste water.
13. Pollutants• Undesirable chemical constituents- organic• (e.g., Benzene, Carbon Tetrachloride, Cis-1,2-Dichlorethylene, Styrene etc.) and inorganic• (e.g., chloride, sulphate, iron, manganese, sodium, Total hardness and total dissolved solids• Toxic constituents (typical, not complete list) - nitrate, arsenic, chromium, lead, cyanide, copper, phenols, dissolved mercury.• Undesirable physical characteristics - taste, color and odour.• Pesticides and herbicides - chlorinated hydrocarbons and others• Radioactive materials - various forms of radioactivity• Biological - bacteria, viruses, parasites and so on• Acid (low pH) or caustic (high pH)
14. Quality of Water• Parameters of water which are required to be tested for determining the quality of water can be divided into• Physical• Chemical• Microbiological
15. Physical ParametersIt includes • Turbidity • Color • Odour • Taste • Temperature
16. Turbidity• It is the large amount of suspended matter such as clay, silt, some other finely divided organic matter present in the water, it will appear to be muddy or cloudy or turbid in appearance.• Turbidity is measured by turbid meter and is expressed in mg/l
17. Color• Dissolved organic matter from decaying vegetation or some inorganic materials such as colored soils, may impart color to water. The excessive growth of algae also may impart color to the water.. The presence of color in water is not objectionable from health point of view, but may spoil the color of clothes being washed in it• Color of water is measured by Hazens unit It should not exceed 5 and should be less than 25
18. Taste And Odour• The dissolved organic matter, inorganic salts, or dissolved gases may impart tastes and odours to the water, which generally occurs together.• Taste and odour may be due to presence of dissolved gases such as H2S, CH4, CO2, O2, etc. Some mineral substances like Iron, sulphates, may impart taste to water.• For drinking purpose water should not contain any undesirable taste and odour.• Taste of water should be agreeable to the consumers• And odour of water is measured in terms of threshold odour number.• For public supplies threshold odour no should be 1 and should not exceed 3.
19. Temperature• Temperature of water has no practical significance however temperature of water should be above 10 0 c while temperature above 25 0C are considered as objectionable.
20. Chemical Parameters• Solids ( Suspended, Dissolved, Volatile)• Hardness• Chlorides• pH• Dissolved gases like Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide• Nitrogen compound like Nitrates, Nitrites.• Metals and other in organic substance like fluoride, iron, and manganese, lead, Arsenic, Iodide, Cadmium.
21. Microbiological Parameters• It Includes various microorganisms i.e. bacteria, virus, protozoa, worms, present in water it may be pathogenic or non pathogenic
22. Water Quality Standards• The definition of water quality depends on the intended use of the water which may be either human consumption or it may be for industries, irrigation, recreation etc.• Depending upon the proposed use of water, certain water quality criteria are established and based on these criteria quality standards are specified by health and other regulation agencies.• Different types of uses require different level of water purity.• Drinking water requires highest standard of purity
23. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
24. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
25. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
26. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
27. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
28. INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500
29. Effluent Discharge Standards
30. Sources of Surface Water Pollution• Most of Water Pollution is man made It may also occur naturally by addition of soil particles through erosion animal wastes and leaching of minerals from rocks• The sources of surface water pollution can be classified as • Municipal Waste Water • Industrial Waste • Inorganic Pollutants • Organic Pollutants • Agricultural Wastes • Marine Pollution • Thermal pollution
31. Municipal Waste Water• Municipal waste water includes domestic discharges and commercial and industrial waste water collected in public sewerage system. The sewage contain human and industrial waste water collected in public sewerage system. The sewage contain human and animal excreta, food residue, detergents, and other wastes. It always contain organic matter, bacteria, and other biological Pollutants.
32. Municipal Waste Water
33. Industrial Waste• The major source of water pollution is the waste water discharged from industries and commercial bodies, these industries are chemical, metallurgical, food processing industries, textile, paper industries. They discharge several organic and inorganic pollutants. That prove highly toxic to living beings.
34. Industrial Waste
35. Inorganic Pollutants• They include fine particles of different metals, chlorides, sulphates, oxides of iron, cadmium, acids and alkalis
36. Inorganic Pollutants
37. Inorganic Pollutants
38. Organic Pollutants• They Include oils, fats, phenols, organic acids grease and several other organic compounds
39. Agricultural Wastes• Chemical fertilizers and pesticides have become essential for present day high yielding crops. Consequently , they have become a potential source of water pollution. These fertilizers contain major plants nutrients mainly nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. Excess fertilizers may reach the ground water by leaching or may be mixed with surface water of rivers, lakes and ponds by runoff and drainage.
40. Marine Pollution• Ocean are the final sink of all natural and manmade pollutants. Rivers discharge their pollutants into the sea. The sewage and garbage of costal cities are also dumped into the sea. The other sources include, discharge of oils, grease, detergents, and radioactive wastes from ships.
41. Marine Pollution
42. Thermal Pollution• Thermal Pollution of water is caused by the rise in temperature of water. The main source of thermal pollution are the thermal and nuclear power plants. The power generating plants use water as coolants and release hot water into the original source. Sudden rise in temperature kills fish and other aquatic animals.
43. Thermal Pollution
44. Underground Water Pollution• Underground water was considered fairly safe source of water but in India the ground water is threatened with contamination due to seepage from industrial and municipal waste and effluents, sewage and agricultural runoff. The ground water also gets polluted by leaching of salts and minerals due to overuse of ground water source.
45. Underground Water Pollution
46. Effects of Water Pollutants• Sediments:- Excessive amount of soil particles carried by flowing water, when there is severe soil erosion. Sediments clog reservoir and channels, destroy, aquatic life.• Oxygen demanding organic waste:- Animal waste, plant debris, waste from paper mill and food processing facilities bacteria can decompose organic waste and in the process they deplete oxygen and can cause death of fish and other aquatic life.
47. • Infectious microorganisms:- Parasitic worms, viruses and bacteria from infected organisms as well as human and animal wastes are responsible for water borne diseases that can kill thousand of Individuals.• Organic Compounds:- Substances like fats oil, grease as well as some organic acids from industrial effluents can cause many health problems in humans and can disturb aquatic life
48. Infectious Microorganisms
49. • Inorganic nutrients:-• Substances like nitrogen and phosphorous from animal waste, plant residues and fertilizers runoff. These nutrients can cause eutrophication and can effect infant and unborn babies ( Blue baby syndrome)• Inorganic Chemicals:- Acids salts and heavy metals, such as lead and mercury from industrial effluents, surface runoff and house hold cleaning agents. They make water unfit for drinking, or irrigation, harm fish and other aquatic life.
50. • Radioactive substances:- Waste from nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, and the mining of radioactive substances can cause cancer, birth defects etc.• Thermal Pollution:- Hot Water from industrial processes may lower oxygen levels and make aquatic organisms more vulnerable to disease, parasites and toxic chemicals.
51. Thermal Pollution
52. Eutrophication• Definition:- Eutophication is an increase in chemical nutrients, typically compound containing nitrogen or phosphorous in an ecosystem, and it may occur on land or in water• However, Eutrophication also means excessive plant growth.
54. Eutrophication Process• A lake or pond contains minimal level of nutrients and is supports small population of aquatic organisms. Eutrophication is the enrichment of such nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen. It may occur when fertilizers runoff during discharge of large amount of nutrients into the water body.• In Eutrophic lakes there is increased photosynthetic activity which results in excess growth of algae. When the excessive number of algae die, they are deposited on the bottom of the lake and are decomposed. Since this process uses lots of dissolved oxygen some fish species die.• Eutrophication is undesirable, since it affects aquatic life.
55. • Eutrophication generally promotes excessive plant growth and decay, or favors certain species over the other, and is likely to cause reduction in water quality.• In Aquatic environment enhanced growth disturbs normal functioning of the ecosystem causing a variety of problems such as lack of oxygen in the water , needed for fish to survive. The water becomes cloudy, colored, a shade of green, yellow, brown or red. Human society is impacted as well• Eutrophication decreases the resource value of rivers, lakes and estuaries such that recreation , fishing, hunting and aesthetic enjoyment are hindered health related problem can occur where eutrophication condition interfere with drinking.
56. Ground Water Pollution• Sources of groundwater pollution• Saltwater encroachment associated with over drafting of aquifers or natural leaching from natural occurring deposits are natural sources of groundwater pollution. Most concern over groundwater contamination has centered on pollution associated with human activities. Human groundwater contamination can be related to waste disposal (private sewage disposal systems, land disposal of solid waste, municipal wastewater, wastewater impoundments, land spreading of sludge, brine disposal from the petroleum industry, mine wastes, deep-well disposal of liquid wastes, animal feedlot wastes, radioactive wastes) or not directly related to waste disposal (accidents, certain agricultural activities, mining, highway deicing, acid rain, improper well construction and maintenance, road salt).
57. The Following Table Shows A List Of The Potential Groundwater Contamination Sources Potential groundwater contamination sourcePlace of origin Municipal Industrial Agricultural Individual air pollution air pollution air pollution air pollution municipal waste land chemicals: storage & chemical spills fertilizers spreading spills fertilizers homes salt for de-icing fuels: storage & spills livestock waste storage cleanersAt or near the land streets mine tailing piles facilities & landsurface detergents streets & parking spreading lots motor oil pesticides paints pesticides landfills pipelines underground storage septic systems leaky sewer lines underground storage tanks wells: poorlyBelow the land tanks wells: poorly constructed orsurface constructed or abandoned abandoned
58. Description Of The Contamination Sources.• Natural: groundwater contains some impurities, even if it is unaffected by human activities. The types and concentrations of natural impurities depend on the nature of the geological material through which the groundwater moves and the quality of the recharge water. Groundwater moving through sedimentary rocks and soils may pick up a wide range of compounds such as magnesium, calcium, and chlorides. Some aquifers have high natural concentration of dissolved constituents such as arsenic, boron, and selenium. The effect of these natural sources of contamination on groundwater quality depends on the type of contaminant and its concentrations.
59. Agricultural• Agricultural: Pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides and animal waste are agricultural sources of groundwater contamination. The agricultural contamination sources are varied and numerous: spillage of fertilizers and pesticides during handling, runoff from the loading and washing of pesticide sprayers or other application equipment, using chemicals uphill from or within a few hundred feet of a well. Agricultural land that lacks sufficient drainage is considered by many farmers to be lost income land. So they may install drain tiles or drainage wells to make the land more productive. The drainage well then serves as a direct conduit to groundwater for agricultural wastes which are washed down with the runoff. Storage of agricultural chemicals near conduits to groundwater, such as open and abandoned wells, sink holes, or surface depressions where ponded water is likely to accumulate. Contamination may also occur when chemicals are stored in uncovered areas, unprotected from wind and rain, or are stored in locations where the groundwater flows from the direction of the chemical storage to the well.
60. • INDUSTRIAL: Manufacturing and service industries have high demands for cooling water, processing water and water for cleaning purposes. Groundwater pollution occurs when used water is returned to the hydrological cycle. Modern economic activity requires transportation and storage of material used in manufacturing, processing, and construction. Along the way, some of this material can be lost through spillage, leakage, or improper handling. The disposal of wastes associated with the above activities contributes to another source of groundwater contamination. Some businesses, usually without access to sewer systems, rely on shallow underground disposal. They use cesspools or dry holes, or send the wastewater into septic tanks. Any of these forms of disposal can lead to contamination of underground sources of drinking water. Dry holes and cesspools introduce wastes directly into the ground. Septic systems cannot treat industrial wastes. Wastewater disposal practices of certain types of businesses, such as automobile service stations, dry cleaners, electrical component or machine manufacturers, photo processors, and metal platters or fabricators are of particular concern because the waste they generate is likely to contain toxic chemicals. Other industrial sources of contamination include cleaning off holding tanks or spraying equipment on the open ground, disposing of waste in septic systems or dry wells, and storing hazardous materials in uncovered areas or in areas that do not have pads with drains or catchment basins. Underground and above ground storage tanks holding petroleum products, acids, solvents and chemicals can develop leaks from corrosion, defects, improper installation, or mechanical failure of the pipes and fittings. Mining of fuel and non-fuel minerals can create many opportunities for groundwater contamination. The problems stem from the mining process itself, disposal of wastes, and processing of the ores and the wastes it creates.
61. Residential• RESIDENTIAL: Residential wastewater systems can be a source of many categories of contaminants, including bacteria, viruses, nitrates from human waste, and organic compounds. Injection wells used for domestic wastewater disposal (septic systems, cesspools, drainage wells for storm water runoff, groundwater recharge wells) are of particular concern to groundwater quality if located close to drinking water wells. Improperly storing or disposing of household chemicals such as paints, synthetic detergents, solvents, oils, medicines, disinfectants, pool chemicals, pesticides, batteries, gasoline and diesel fuel can lead to groundwater contamination. When stored in garages or basements with floor drains, spills and flooding may introduce such contaminants into the groundwater. When thrown in the household trash, the products will eventually be carried into the groundwater because community landfills are not equipped to handle hazardous materials. Similarly, wastes dumped or buried in the ground can contaminate the soil and leach into the groundwater.
62. Inorganic Contaminants found in Ground WaterContaminants Potential Health Risk And Other EffectsArsenic Causes acute and chronic toxicity, liver and kidney damage, decrease blood hemoglobin. Possible carcinogenChloride Deteriorates Plumbing, water heater, and municipal equipments, at high level, above maximum contaminant level taste become noticeableChromium Chromium VI Causes liver and kidney damage, internal hemorrhaging, respiratory damage, dermatitis, and ulcer on the skin at higher level.Copper Can cause stomach and intestinal distress , liver and kidney damage, anemia at higher doses, Imparts an adverse taste and significant staining to clothes and fixtures. Essential trace element but toxic to plants and algae at moderate level.
63. Inorganic Contaminants found in Ground WaterContaminants Potential Health risk and other effectsCyanide Poisoning is the result of damage to liver, brain and spleenDissolved Solids May have an influence on the accessibility of water in general.Fluoride Decreases incidence of tooth Decay but higher level can stain or mottle teeth . Causes crippling bone disorder. At very high level.Hardness Decreases the lather formation of soaps, increase the scale formation in hot water heaters. and low pressure boilers at higher levels.Iron Imparts a bitter taste and astringent taste to water and brownish color to clothes and plumbing fixtures.Lead Affects red blood cell chemistry, delay normal physical and mental development in babies and young children.
64. Inorganic Contaminants found in Ground WaterContaminants Potential Health risk and other effectsManganese Causes aesthetic and economic damage , imparts brownish stains to laundry, Affects taste of water, causes dark brown or black stains on plumbing fixtures, relative non-toxic to humans but toxic to plants at higher levels.Mercury Causes acute and chronic toxicity. Targets the kidney and can cause nervous system disorders.Nickel Damages the heart and liver of laboratory animals exposed to large amount over life time.Nitrate Causes Metmemoglbinemia, which threatens oxygen carrying capacity of blood.Zinc Aids in healing of wounds, Imparts undesirable taste to water.Thallium Damages kidney, liver, brain, and interestine in laboratory animals when given in high dose
65. Organic Contaminants Found in Ground waterContaminants Potential Health risk and other effectsVolatile organic Can cause cancer and liver damage , anemia, gastrointestinalcarbon disorder, skin irritation, blurred vision, exhaustion, weight loss, damage to nervous system, and respiratory tract irritation.Pesticides Causes poisoning, headaches, dizziness, gastrointestinal disorder, numbness, weakness, and cancer. Destroy nervous system, thyroid, reproductive system, liver and kidney, stomach and liver and kidney.Plasticizers, Causes Cancer, Damage nervous and reproductive system,Chlorinated kidney, stomach and liver.solvents,
66. Microbiological Contaminants Found in Ground waterContaminants Potential Health risk and other effectsColi form Bacteria, viruses, and parasites, can cause polio, cholera, typhoidbacteria fever, dysentery and infection hepatitis
67. Radiological Contaminant Found In Ground WaterContaminants Potential Health risk and other effectsGross alpha- Damages tissue and destroys bone marrowparticleactivityCombined Causes cancer by concentrating in bone and skeletal tissueradium 226and radium228Beta particle Damages tissue and destroy bone marrow.and photonradioactivity
68. Over Use Of Water• Water is used by every living organism on the earth. The requirement of everybody varies, people should utilize it economically, but population growth has created much demand of water. In some areas the demand for water already exceeds natures supplies. Due to rapid urbanization more people move toward urban areas which leads to overuse of water in urban areas.• Water disputes between states are increasing as they have to meet increasing demand due to overuse of water.
69. Problems Related To Overuse Of Water• Water is used by every living organism on the earth. The requirement of everybody varies. People should utilize it economically, but the population growth has created much demand of water. In some areas the demand for water already exceeds natural’s supply and growing number of countries are expected to face water shortage in the future.• Due to rapid urbanization, more people move towards urban areas, which leads to overuse of water in urban areas• Water disputes between states are increasing as they have to meet the increase in water demand due to overuse of water.• Over exploitation in term is often used when the rate of extraction exceeds the safe yield of any water resources.
70. Problems related to overuse of water• Groundwater is a highly useful and often abundant resource. However, over-use, or overdraft, can cause major problems to human users and to the environment. The most evident problem (as far as human groundwater use is concerned) is a lowering of the water table beyond the reach of existing wells. Wells must consequently be deepened to reach the groundwater; in some places (e.g., California, Texas and India) the water table has dropped hundreds of feet because of extensive well pumping. In the Punjab region of India, for example, groundwater levels have dropped 10 meters since 1979, and the rate of depletion is accelerating. A lowered water table may, in turn, cause other problems such as groundwater-related subsidence and saltwater intrusion.
71. Subsidence• Subsidence occurs when too much water is pumped out from underground, deflating the space below the above-surface, and thus causing the ground to actually collapse. The result can look like craters on plots of land. This occurs because in its natural equilibrium state, the hydraulic pressure of groundwater in the pore spaces of the aquifer and the aquitard supports some of the weight of the overlying sediments. When groundwater is removed from aquifers by excessive pumping, pore pressures in the aquifer drop and compression of the aquifer may occur. This compression may be partially recoverable if pressures rebound, but much of it is not. When the aquifer gets compressed it may cause land subsidence, a drop in the ground surface. The city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is actually below sea level today, and its subsidence is partly caused by removal of groundwater from the various aquifer/aquitard systems beneath it. In the first half of the 20th century, the city of San Jose, California, dropped 13 feet from land subsidence caused by over pumping; this subsidence has been halted with improved groundwater management.
74. Seawater Intrusion• Generally, in very humid or undeveloped regions, the shape of the water table follows the slope of the surface. In the coastal areas, a lowered water table may induce sea water to reverse the flow toward the land. Sea water moving inland is called a saltwater intrusion. Alternatively, salt from mineral beds may leach into the groundwater of its own accord.
75. Seawater Intrusion
76. Pollution• Water pollution of groundwater, from pollutants released to the ground that can work their way down into groundwater, can create a contaminant plume within an aquifer. Movement of water and dispersion within the aquifer spreads the pollutant over a wider area, its advancing boundary often called a plume edge, which can then intersect with groundwater wells or daylight into surface water such as seeps and springs, making the water supplies unsafe for humans and wildlife
77. Other Problems Related To Overuse Of Water• Drying of water courses• Depletion of water table• Water logging• Migration of population• Increased salinity• Increased pumping cost as the water table lowers
78. Water Contamination
79. Dry River
80. Lowering Of Water Table
81. Water Logging
84. Case Studies• Widespread groundwater pollution is in the Ganges Plain of northern India and Bangladesh where severe contamination of groundwater by naturally occurring arsenic affects 25% of water wells in the shallower of two regional aquifers.
85. Effects Of Consuming Arsenic Contaminated Water
86. Assignment• Make a note on effects of Arsenic contamination in ground water on human health