Water resourses of pakistan, nadeem ashraf


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Water resourses of pakistan, nadeem ashraf

  1. 1. WATER SOURCES INPAKISTANM .Nadeem AshrafSoil & Environmental sciencesFaculty of Agriculture,Rawalakot
  2. 2. IntroductionWater covers 71% of the earth’s surfaceWater moves continually through a cycle of evaporation, precipitation and runofEssential for all forms of life. Ravi
  3. 3. Water sourcesSources from which water is available forwater supply schemes are called watersources.The most common sources of water forirrigation includes:Surface Water (Rivers, Reservoirs andLakes).Ground water. the chanab
  4. 4. Surface waterWater in a river, lake or fresh water wetland.Naturally replenished by precipitation, lost throughdischarge to the oceans, evaporation, and subsurfaceseepage.The total quantity of water in a system may dependsonStorage capacityPermeabilityRunoffPrecipitation and evaporation rateHuman activities can have large and devastatingimpact on these factor byincrease storage capacity by Constructing damDecrease it by draining wetlands
  5. 5.  Total quantity of available water depends on seasons like2)Winter3)Summer Humans can cause surface water to be “lost” (i.e. become unusable) through pollution.Desalination Artificial process by which Saline water is converted into fresh water Distillation and reverse osmosis Expensive process
  6. 6. Water availabilityVary a lot over the year, or evenbetween one year and anotherSupply depends on the capacity ofwithdrawing technique.Methods of tapping water from watersourcesBy making use of gravityBy using a pump Haripur dam
  7. 7. RiversSources of irrigation water all over theworld.The flow of river fluctuates over time.The discharge of rivers is commonlyexpressed in cubic meters per second.Tapping water from riversDirect river diversionRiver diversion using a weirPumping from a river Hub dam
  8. 8. LakesNatural depressions of land.Lakes are supplied with water byrainfall that falls directly on the surfaceof lakes.By water run-off from adjacent land.Lakes loses water viaEvaporation.Through percolation from the bottom ofthe lake to the groundwater.The amount of irrigation water requiredmust be less than the quantity of water The Jhelumavailable in lakes
  9. 9. ReservoirsAmount of water in a reservoir depends onRiver dischargeHeight of the damArea of the reservoirOn-stream storageOff-stream storagePumping from a Lake or ReservoirWater can be taken from lakes or reservoir viaDirect diversionConcrete or steel pipePumps Indus river from Karakouram highway
  10. 10. GroundwaterAn important source of irrigation waterGroundwater may be found close to thesurface or at profound depthIn coastal plains the groundwater isoften brackish or saline due to theproximity of the seaInland groundwater may also bebrackish in places where the soilcontains many soluble saltsPumping from wellsTo tap groundwater a well must be digdeeper than the groundwater level. KabulShallow groundwater attockDeep groundwater
  11. 11. Surface water of Pakistan The Ravi
  12. 12. Dams Before Partition: Khushdil Khan Dam (1890). Spin Karaiz (1945). Namal Dam (1913). After Partition: Mangla Dam. Tarbela Dam. Mangla dam
  13. 13. RiversWater Sources measurement at RimStation.Rim StationIndus RiversBrings 154 MAF of Water annually (144.91MAF from Western Rivers and 9.14 MAF fromEastern River).104.73 MAF used for irrigation.39.4 MAF flows to sea.9.9 MAF is consumed by the system losses.s Sutlej river
  14. 14. It comprises ofMajor reservoirs : 3Barrages : 16Head Works : 2Siphons : 2Inter river link canals : 12Canal system : 44•Punjab : 23•Sindh : 14•NWFP : 5•Balochistan : 2Watercourses : 107,000Aggregate length of canals is about 56,073 km.Watercourses, Form Channels and Field Ditches, covers1.6 million km.Tube wells : 500,000 The chanab
  15. 15. Ground WaterSindh and Balochistan : 40 ft depth.Rachna Doab : 100 ft .1950’s SCARP introduced deep tube wells tocontrol salinity and water logging.Within 30 years 13,500 tube wells were installed(9300 in Punjab).Now about 41.6 MAF water supply is from500,000 tube wells . In Punjab 79%, in Sindh 28% of the area isunderline by freshwater.Ground water become a major supplement ofcanal supplies in last 25-30 years. Tarbela spillway
  16. 16. Quality of ground water.Fresh (salinity less than 1000 mg / l TDS).Saline (salinity less than 3000 mg / l TDS). Punjab79% fresh water.9.78 million acres are underline with ground water ofless than 1000 mg/ l TDS.3 million acres with salinity ranging from 1000-3000mg / l TDS.3.26 million acres with salinity more than 3000 mg / lTDS. Rawal damSaline water in central Doab area.Brackish water in Cholistan area.Ground water with high fluoride contents in Kasur, Mianwali
  17. 17. Sindh28 % fresh groundwater.Found at depth of 20-25 m.Large area with groundwater of poor quality.Thar, Nara and Kohistan with non-portable, highly brackishwater.Tharparker and Umerkot with high fluoride contents in groundwater.NWFPIn NWFP, certain areas such as Karak, Kohat , Bannu and D.I.khan has lowered the water table and resulted in contamination.BalochistanMakran coastal zone with highly brackish groundwater.Local communities use groundwater with TDS as high as 3000mg / l for drinking purposes.Mastung Valley, Makran Coast and Kharan with high flouridecontents in groundwater. Lahore canal
  18. 18. THANK YOU