Water erosion


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Muhammad Nadeem Ashraf
Faculty of Agriculture, Rawalakot.

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Water erosion

  1. 1. WATER EROSION Muhammad Nadeem Ashraf Student, Soil & Environmental Science Faculty of Agriculture, Rawalakot
  2. 2. EROSION“Removal of soil from its original position” Or “It is the process of detachment, transportation & deposition of soil materials from one place to another by erusive agents”
  3. 3. Some FactsA) Detachment.B) Transportation.C) Deposition.
  4. 4. Types of ErosionIn general there are two types of soil erosion.1. Geological Erosion.2. Accelerated Erosion.
  5. 5. Main causes of soil Erosion1. Misuse of land.2. Mismanagement of arable land.3. Deforestation.4. Poor soil & water management practices.
  6. 6. Agents of Erosion1. Wind.2. Water.3. Temperature.4. Biological Factors.
  7. 7. Classification of Erosion(Depending upon the erosion causing factors )A) Wind Erosion.B) Water Erosion.
  8. 8. Water Erosion“ It is the detachment, transportation & deposition of soil particles by the force of water from one place to another.” Soil erosion by water is the result of rain detaching & transporting of vulnerable soil,either directly by means of rain splash or indirectly by rill & gully erosion.
  9. 9. Forms of water erosionA). Rain Splash Erosion: Rain splash erosion is caused by the impact of water striking the surface of soil.It takes place in two steps.1. As precipitation fills the pore spaces, loosening & driving soil particles apart.2. Impact of subsequent rain drops hitting the surface, transporting particles to other area.
  10. 10. Rain splash erosion caused a dimpled likeappearance.
  11. 11. Sever rain splash erosion.
  12. 12. B) Sheet Erosion.“ It is the uniform removal of soil in thin layers in sloping land resulting from rain splash erosion.” surface runoff forms when the rainfall intensity of a storm exceeds the infiltration capacity of soil.
  13. 13. Sever sheet erosion on a field.
  14. 14. C) Rill Erosion.It is caused by water concentrating intoinnumerable, closely spaced smallchannels. Left unchecked, rills can cutvertically & horizontally and when joinedform gullies.
  15. 15. Rill erosion on a field.
  16. 16. Rill erosion on a field.
  17. 17. D) Gully Erosion. Gullies are steep-sided trenches formed by the coalescence of many rills.Once they are started difficult to stop.Stages of gully erosion.Stage-1. Cutting top soil.Stage-2. Enlargement of gullies.Stage-3. Healing stage.Stage-4. Stablization.
  18. 18. Gully Erosion.
  19. 19. Types of Gullies.1. U-shaped.2. V-shaped.
  20. 20. E) Stream Erosion.When flow in gullies become permanent, itis called a stream which may be permanentor seasonal is called as stream erosion.
  21. 21. Stream erosion.
  22. 22. Factors affecting water ErosionA) Climate. 1. Precipitation. 2. Temperature. 3. Wind. 4. Humidity. 5. Solar radiation.
  23. 23. B) Soil. 1. Physical properties of soil. 2. Vegetation cover. 3. Organic matter contents in soil. 4. Moisture contents of soil. 5. Soil densityC) Topography.