BY Muhammad Nadeem Ashraf Soil & Environmental SciencesFaculty of Agriculture, Rawalakot.
(Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; German: Eutrophie) is the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system.
Natural runoff of nutrients from soil and weathering of rocks inorganic fertilizers Manures from farms Erosion Discharge of detergents Discharge of partially treated or untreated sewage Domestic and industrial waste Animal wastes and sediments entering into water
Two types of Eutrophication Natural Eutrophication Cultural Eutrophication
The process of water bodies aging characterized by nutrient enrichment due to natural reasons is natural eutrophication. During this process the micro plants like algae, which initially grows in lakes & streams add further nutrients in lakes in their dying phase. This helps in growth of micro plant like water hyacinth which further increase nutrient in death phase.
In this way oligotrophic lake is converted into eutrophic lake. It permits the production of phytoplankton,algal blooms & aquatic vegetation. In initial phase there is no deficiency of oxygen but in lateral phase dissolved oxygen is depleted causing death of aquatic animals
Its the process that speeds up natural eutrophication because of human activities.it is caused by increased nutrients input into water bodies. These results in excessive growth of plant known as algal bloom. this reduced amount of dissolved oxygen in water and cause animal and plant death.
Species diversity decreased Turbidity increases Anoxic conditions may develop Depletion in oxygen Loss of desirable fish species Decrease in perceived aesthetic value of water bodies
*Waste water must be treated before its discharged into water*algal bloom should be removed upon death*physiochemical methods can be adopted to remove dissolved nutrients e.g. phosphorus can be removed by precipitation*by direct killing of aquatic plant e.g. cuso4