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Entomology in field of
agriculture
By
M.Nadeem Ashraf UAF
nadeemawan17@gmail.com
Entomology:
is study of insects
• This course extend vision and understanding
about insects, damage pattern and their
econ...
IPM
• Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been
developed as a way to
• control pests without relying solely on
pesticides...
CONTROL METHODS
 IPM methods include cultural, biological,
chemical and physical control methods.
 None of these alone c...
Cultural control
• There are many agricultural practices that
make the environment less favourable to
insect pests. Exampl...
• A yellow sticky card being
used to
monitor flea beetle
populations.
• Trap crops are planted to
attract and hold pest
insects.
• where they can be
managed more efficiently
and prevent or red...
Physical control
• The use of physical barriers such as row covers
or trenches prevents insects from reaching the
crop. Ro...
Physical control
• Cold storage is also considered a physical
control and, although it does not necessarily
kill the insec...
Sticky boards
Chemical control
• If all other integrated pest management
tactics are unable to keep an insect pest
population below an e...
Chemical control
• The major classes of insecticides are the
organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons,
carbamates.
• Ins...
Chemical control
Biological control
 Biological control generally includes the
manipulation of one biological organism to
control another ...
Biological control
• Importation or classical biological control:
involves the introduction of a pest's natural
enemies to...
Biological control
• Augmentation:
• When beneficial biological organisms are mass
reared and released periodically to
sup...
Biological control
• Nature:
Pest populations are maintained by a number
of natural predators, parasites and diseases,
whi...
• Lacewings, lady beetles,
hover fly larvae, and
parasitized aphid mummies
are almost always present
in aphid colonies.
A ...
• Use of crop varieties that
are resistant or tolerant to
insect pests and diseases. A
resistant variety may be
less prefe...
Advantages of IPM
 Reduced number of broad-spectrum pesticide
applications.
 Reduced risk of pests developing resistance...
Disadvantages of IPM
o More time required and initially complicated
decision-making .
o Crop monitoring results that can b...
Any question ?
The end
Entomology in field of agriculture
Entomology in field of agriculture
Entomology in field of agriculture
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Entomology in field of agriculture, university of agriculture faisalabad,

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Transcript of "Entomology in field of agriculture"

  1. 1. Entomology in field of agriculture By M.Nadeem Ashraf UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com
  2. 2. Entomology: is study of insects • This course extend vision and understanding about insects, damage pattern and their economic importance. And applied entomologists introduced IPM to control insect pest in agricultural field. In 1950 , university of California entomologist used word integrated control which later become IPM to control insect pest.
  3. 3. IPM • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been developed as a way to • control pests without relying solely on pesticides. IPM is a systematic • plan which brings together different pest control tactics into one • program. With IPM, a farmer uses pesticides as one tool in an overall • pest control program.
  4. 4. CONTROL METHODS  IPM methods include cultural, biological, chemical and physical control methods.  None of these alone can solve all problems. Each has benefits an draw backs.
  5. 5. Cultural control • There are many agricultural practices that make the environment less favourable to insect pests. Examples include cultivation of alternate hosts (e.g. weeds), crop rotation, selection of planting sites, trap crops, and adjusting the timing of harvest. • Crop rotation, for example, is highly recommended for management of Colorado potato beetle.
  6. 6. • A yellow sticky card being used to monitor flea beetle populations.
  7. 7. • Trap crops are planted to attract and hold pest insects. • where they can be managed more efficiently and prevent or reduce their movement onto valuable crops. Pheromone trap can be used to monitor the pest movements.
  8. 8. Physical control • The use of physical barriers such as row covers or trenches prevents insects from reaching the crop. Row covers can help prevent early- season damage to cucurbits by cucumber beetles, and plastic-lined trenches are effective in trapping large numbers of dispersing Colorado potato beetles in the spring and fall.
  9. 9. Physical control • Cold storage is also considered a physical control and, although it does not necessarily kill the insect pests, it at least stops their development and further feeding on the stored crop. Other methods include hand picking of pests, sticky boards or tapes for control of flying insects in greenhouses and various trapping techniques
  10. 10. Sticky boards
  11. 11. Chemical control • If all other integrated pest management tactics are unable to keep an insect pest population below an economic threshold, then use of an insecticide to control the pest and prevent economic loss is justified. • They can be relatively cheap and are easy to apply, fast-acting, and in most instances can be relied on to control the pest(s).
  12. 12. Chemical control • The major classes of insecticides are the organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbamates. • Insecticides can be formulated as liquids, powders, aerosols, dusts, granules, baits, and slow-release forms, they are very versatile .
  13. 13. Chemical control
  14. 14. Biological control  Biological control generally includes the manipulation of one biological organism to control another organism classified as a pest.  Biological control methods has been categorized into three basic approaches, namely: (1) classical (2) augmentation and (3) natural.
  15. 15. Biological control • Importation or classical biological control: involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. • The process of importation involves determining the origin of the pest and then collecting appropriate natural enemies associated with the pest or closely related species. It is long lasting and inexpensive.
  16. 16. Biological control • Augmentation: • When beneficial biological organisms are mass reared and released periodically to supplement the natural enemy complex and achieve reduction of a pest problem, the approach is called augmentation. • Lady beetles, lacewings, or parasitoids such as those from the genus Trichogramma are frequently released in large numbers .
  17. 17. Biological control • Nature: Pest populations are maintained by a number of natural predators, parasites and diseases, which represents natural biological control. If such forces were not in effect, we would be overrun by pest populations. The balance of crop pest populations and their natural enemies can be significantly influenced by cultural practices and the use of chemicals.
  18. 18. • Lacewings, lady beetles, hover fly larvae, and parasitized aphid mummies are almost always present in aphid colonies. A turnaround flowerpot, filled with straw to attract Dermaptera-species
  19. 19. • Use of crop varieties that are resistant or tolerant to insect pests and diseases. A resistant variety may be less preferred by the insect pest, adversely affect its normal development and survival or the plant may tolerate the damage without an economic loss . Thrip resistant cabbage
  20. 20. Advantages of IPM  Reduced number of broad-spectrum pesticide applications.  Reduced risk of pests developing resistance to pesticides .  Reduced risk to farm workers/operators .  Reduced chemical and labour costs.  Reduced damage to the environment .  Reduced risk of spray drift.
  21. 21. Disadvantages of IPM o More time required and initially complicated decision-making . o Crop monitoring results that can be difficult to interpret . o Current lack of market rewards for IPM grown product and limited market tolerance to blemishes . o Low or nil tolerance to insect contamination for low crops.
  22. 22. Any question ?
  23. 23. The end
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