Transcript of "Entomology in field of agriculture"
Entomology in field of
M.Nadeem Ashraf UAF
is study of insects
• This course extend vision and understanding
about insects, damage pattern and their
And applied entomologists introduced IPM to
control insect pest in agricultural field.
In 1950 , university of California entomologist
used word integrated control which later become
IPM to control insect pest.
• Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been
developed as a way to
• control pests without relying solely on
pesticides. IPM is a systematic
• plan which brings together different pest
control tactics into one
• program. With IPM, a farmer uses pesticides
as one tool in an overall
• pest control program.
IPM methods include cultural, biological,
chemical and physical control methods.
None of these alone can solve all problems.
Each has benefits an draw backs.
• There are many agricultural practices that
make the environment less favourable to
insect pests. Examples include cultivation of
alternate hosts (e.g. weeds), crop rotation,
selection of planting sites, trap crops, and
adjusting the timing of harvest.
• Crop rotation, for example, is highly
recommended for management of Colorado
• A yellow sticky card being
monitor flea beetle
• Trap crops are planted to
attract and hold pest
• where they can be
managed more efficiently
and prevent or reduce their
movement onto valuable
Pheromone trap can be used
to monitor the pest
• The use of physical barriers such as row covers
or trenches prevents insects from reaching the
crop. Row covers can help prevent early-
season damage to cucurbits by cucumber
beetles, and plastic-lined trenches are
effective in trapping large numbers of
dispersing Colorado potato beetles in the
spring and fall.
• Cold storage is also considered a physical
control and, although it does not necessarily
kill the insect pests, it at least stops their
development and further feeding on the
stored crop. Other methods include hand
picking of pests, sticky boards or tapes for
control of flying insects in greenhouses and
various trapping techniques
• If all other integrated pest management
tactics are unable to keep an insect pest
population below an economic threshold,
then use of an insecticide to control the pest
and prevent economic loss is justified.
• They can be relatively cheap and are easy to
apply, fast-acting, and in most instances can
be relied on to control the pest(s).
• The major classes of insecticides are the
organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons,
• Insecticides can be formulated as liquids,
powders, aerosols, dusts, granules, baits, and
slow-release forms, they are very versatile .
Biological control generally includes the
manipulation of one biological organism to
control another organism classified as a pest.
Biological control methods has been
categorized into three basic approaches,
namely: (1) classical (2) augmentation and (3)
• Importation or classical biological control:
involves the introduction of a pest's natural
enemies to a new locale where they do not
• The process of importation involves
determining the origin of the pest and then
collecting appropriate natural enemies
associated with the pest or closely related
species. It is long lasting and inexpensive.
• When beneficial biological organisms are mass
reared and released periodically to
supplement the natural enemy complex and
achieve reduction of a pest problem, the
approach is called augmentation.
• Lady beetles, lacewings, or parasitoids such as
those from the genus Trichogramma are
frequently released in large numbers .
Pest populations are maintained by a number
of natural predators, parasites and diseases,
which represents natural biological control. If
such forces were not in effect, we would be
overrun by pest populations. The balance of
crop pest populations and their natural
enemies can be significantly influenced by
cultural practices and the use of chemicals.
• Lacewings, lady beetles,
hover fly larvae, and
parasitized aphid mummies
are almost always present
in aphid colonies.
A turnaround flowerpot,
filled with straw to attract
• Use of crop varieties that
are resistant or tolerant to
insect pests and diseases. A
resistant variety may be
less preferred by the insect
pest, adversely affect its
normal development and
survival or the plant may
tolerate the damage
without an economic loss .
Thrip resistant cabbage
Advantages of IPM
Reduced number of broad-spectrum pesticide
Reduced risk of pests developing resistance to
Reduced risk to farm workers/operators .
Reduced chemical and labour costs.
Reduced damage to the environment .
Reduced risk of spray drift.
Disadvantages of IPM
o More time required and initially complicated
o Crop monitoring results that can be difficult to
o Current lack of market rewards for IPM grown
product and limited market tolerance to
o Low or nil tolerance to insect contamination
for low crops.