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Biochar final exam

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Biochar Objective and FAQ

Biochar Objective and FAQ

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  • 1. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com Spring 2013 Biochar Objective SES_718 (Final Exam) 1. Ammonium fixation is the entrapment of NH4 in clay type of minerals such as__________ 2. Biological nitrogen fixation by organism called____________convert N2 to ammonia. 3. In BNF conversion of atmosphere N2 to ammonia by an enzyme________________. 4. Nitrogen fixing microbes can exists as___________or in association with other microbes or plants. 5. The removal of nitrogen especially__________out of root zone called_______________. 6. Biochar is somewhat depleted in N and slightly depleted in S relative to more___________ 7. During_________ that generates biochar heating causes some nutrients to_____________. 8. ________, ___________held at a given temperature and heating influence the chemical properties of biochar. 9. Carbon begins to volatilize at temperature__________,N__________and S above______o C. 10. K and P volatilize at temperature ranges______________________________. 11. The volatilization of Ca, Mg and Mn occurs at temperature above_________________. 12. Biochar produced from sewage sludge pyrolysed at_________contain_____% of original P and N. 13. In the pyrolysis of wheat straw biochar resulted in loss of about____________of S at temperature_________________. 14. Accordingly extractable concentration of NH4 and PO4 decreases with increasing________ 15. During biochar generation with a portion of___________oxidize to___________at higher temperature. 16. Higher temperature (8000 c) biochar demonstrated higher______, ________and extractable ____________relative to low temperature 3500 C. 17. Substantial variation occurs in chemical properties of biochar due to_________that the plant material reaches during____________. 18. Biochar addition to soil provide a modest contribution of nutrients depends upon________ and________________. 19. Nitrogen is the single most limiting plant nutrient in most__________or______________ ecosystem. 20. In soil majority of nitrogen exists as organic form that must be___________to NH4 and___ to NO3 prior to plant uptake. 21. ____________is a biotic process driven primarily by heterotrophic bacteria and variety of fungi. 22. ___________is a biotic process mediated by autotrophic organisms including bacteria and archea. 23. Both___________________and______________stimulate net nitrification in forest soils. 24. Nitrification was found to be below the detection limit in the_________________rich forests of Sweden. 25. Forests recently exposed to fire were found to have measurable level of_______________.
  • 2. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com 26. The injection of glycine into the forest soils stimulated_________________but fail to stimulate___________________. 27. The injection of glycine with activated carbon stimulated_________________. 28. ___________was substrate limited where nitrification inhibited by adding____________. 29. The injection of______________into humus layer induce a slight stimulation of nitrification 30. In all soil treated with activated carbon, a significant reduction in________________were recorded. 31. _____________activity was found to extremely low in soils from sites that had not been exposed to________for 100 years. 32. Wood ash commonly contain high conc. Of metal oxides such as_____________________ 33. Fire induces a short term influence on________availability but biochar hundred to decade. 34. Biochar addition to acidic phenol rich soils that lack_________________has potential to stimulate nitrification. 35. Biochar addition to_____________________soils have no effects on nitrification due to__________________or_______________. 36. _____________temperature biochar induces immobilization. 37. The immobilization process could create a temporary reservoir of________________. 38. The immobilization has a potential to reduce___________of inorganic N in highly leached soils. 39. Ammonia volatilization is favoured at_____________pH and when high concentration of____________are presents. 40. Biochar and biochar mix with ash have the potential to riase_______of acid soils but not to level would increase______________. 41. The process of denitrification requires the presence of___________and terminal________ 42. Adding manure with biochar would increase_________________in the soil solution. 43. Biochar may stimulate_____________ as a result of increased availability of trace metals such as________________________. 44. Legume nodulation might also be affected if added biochar interfere with_____________in the soil environment. 45. The formation of root nodules in legumes plants is initiated by by their release of________ 46. The concentration of “S” in earth crust ranges between_____________________. 47. S content of igneous rocks usually ranges___________and of sedimentary rocks_________ 48. Gases release during____________activity and as_________, hydrothermal and biological origin. 49. Biochar is highly effectively in the sorption of phenolic S including____________________. 50. Organic compound containing sulphur occur in__________, __________, ______________. 51. Sulphur in most non calcareous soils exists in________________forms. 52. Inorganic forms of sulphur are___________________________________. 53. Readily available sulphur=_______________________________________. 54. There is a significant potential for biochar to influence sulphur________________and____ activity in the soil environment.
  • 3. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com 55. Majority of sulphur originates from________________and most S exists as_____________. 56. Organic S exists as either_____________or_______later have potential to be oxidize to__________Prior to plant uptake. 57. Biochar addition to acidic agriculture soils yields a net increase in soil pH. T/F 58. Alkaline oxides applied along with biochar influence on free___________ratio in soils amended with biochar. 59. Sulphur mineralization is favoured at_______________to_____________ pH. 60. Separating the effects of fire from the effect of natural addition of biochar is difficult due to release of_______________. 61. The S oxidation by acidophilic Thiobacillus would not be favoured by pH_________induces by the presence of biochar. 62. Biochar addition to soil release the surface__________of mineral soils and in results faster warming of soil in spring time. 63. Surface albedo of mineral soils with biochar addition increase sulphur___________or_____ 64. __________addition to mineral soils may also directly and indirectly affects Sulphur______ and_____________. 65. Sulphur is readily adsorbed to the mineral surfaces in soils and particularly to___________ 66. In barren soils N will be very high due to___________and accumulation of_____________. 67. Sometimes plant can take organic forms of nitrogen in small quantity like_____________ 68. Addition of biochar in temperate forest soils increase nitrification due to______________. 69. Application of biochar in sterile soils there is little nitrification b/c of__________________. 70. Biochar addition reduces the concentration of NH4 + through___________and___________ 71. S mineralization rates have been found to increase the following fire in________ecosystem 72. Organic matter addition to soil are known to reduce the extent of SO2- 4 in__________soils 73. The organic forms of P are__________________not available to plants. 74. Fresh biochar has an abundance of AEC in the acid pH range which can initially be excess of total_________________. 75. As biochar ages, the positive exchange sites on__________surface_______and ________ charge sites develop. 76. The biochemical basis for high CEC due to presence of___________________such as_____ 77. An increase in pH by adding biochar due to presence of__________________and reduces concentration of soluble soils___________. 78. Biochar is an exceptionally good surface for sorbing___________or___________________ across a wide range of molecular mass. 79. Allelopathic compound release as root exudates, function as metal chelates to solubilize P are_______________and___________________________. 80. Catechin increase P solubility in alkaline pH calcareous soils. T/F 81. 8-hydroxy quinoline increase the P solubility when added to_________and_________soils. 82. Reduction of P sorption by___________with increasing biochar application rates in the presence of activity of growing______________________. 83. The pore size of wood derived biochar ranges from______________________.
  • 4. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com 84. Biochar may restrict very large soil grazer such as__________and__________________. 85. The ability of ________ to exclude_____________________ allows microbes to mediate nutrient transformation effectively. 86. Activated carbon used for the__________of water due to__________________________. 87. The organic P is bound through_____________and____________bonds to calcium. 88. Nutrients adsorbed to small mobile particles or colloids can also be leached to deeper horizon through_________________. 89. For nutrients dissolve in soil solution, a migration of anions must be accompanied by an equivalent cations for the maintenance of____________________________. 90. Leaching losses of essential nutrients of applied N, Ca, and Mg are________, ___________ and_______________% respectively. 91. Phosphorus and other nutrients cause_______________when they leached or run-off from agriculture lands into water bodies. 92. Currently one of the common cause of unacceptable water quality levels in the developed world is______________________. 93. In 1992, as much as___________% of water wells in intensive agriculture of areas of US were found to have______________levels above the MCL set by EPA. 94. EPA stands for_____________________________________________. 95. MCL stands for____________________________________________. 96. DEFRA stands for____________________________________________. 97. Deep rooted plants such as trees can acts as________________and recycled leached nutrients that have migrated to deeper horizons. 98. Amount of leached nitrate are greater on_______________soils or when_______________ And_______________rates are higher. 99. Biochar should have the greatest value for reducing nutrients leaching in________soils. 1OO. IUPAC stands for________________________________________________. 1O1. The bulk density of biochar is____________than that of minerals soils. 102. Water is usually considered mobile when present in pores of sizes in the order of_______ 103. Macropores of_____________diameter can contribute to the rapid flow of water through soil and after heavy rainfall can lead to__________________. 104. Mesopore size of soil range__________________will allows water to move in response to_______________________. 105. Micropore size for biochar_____________________________diameter. 106. Mesopores and macropores ranges___________and__________________respectively. 107. pore size within biochar depends upon the_____________and___________________. 108. activated biochar has been found to contain a large proportion__________of micropores. 109. If 95% of biochar pores are______________in diameter, the mobility of soil water through the matrix after biochar application will be reduced. 110. The high porosity of biochar is accompanied by high_____________and____________ molecules can sorb depends upon the functional groups.
  • 5. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com 111. Aged biochar has a high___________as shown by high concentration of negative charges on biochar surfaces. 112. Fresh biochar may also sorb anions and___________, ___________ vary with soil pH, age and weathering environment of biochar. 113. _________% of P in the dairy farm effluents was removed by chiken litter biochar in a 100:1 at 500 C. 114. _________was adsorbed readily by both the biochar and biochar/manure mixture while ______________was not at all. 115. ___________had an intermediate behaviour with biochar/manure mixture adsorbing more than pure biochar. 116. P was shown to adsorb vigorously to biochar made from pine and surface litter at temperature range_____________________. 117. Biochar application enhanced mycorrhizal communities in the rhizosphere. T/F 118. Nitrogen immobilization is not likely to be directly increased by biochar because________ 119. The application of biochar to agricultural soils has the potential to improve soil_________, ___________and____________conditions. 120. Biochar has the potential to increase net nitrification in___________soils that otherwise demonstrate little or no nitrification. 121. Biochar additions to soils stimulate mycorrhizal colonization which may increase___________uptake. 122.When NPK fertilizer was applied biochar addition significantly reduced_______and______ leaching during first week only. 123. Excess soluble_________in the soil solution reduces N2-Fixation rates in free living N2- Fixing bacteria and available P stimulate________________. 124. Bases such as________________were more abundant in leachate from biochar than acid washed sand. 125. Leaching of_______was not reduced since fresh biochar contains large amount of_______ 126. Large proportion of_____________leaching of Ca was approximately________% lower than in Oxisols with low biochar contents.
  • 6. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com Spring 2013 Biochar Objective SES_718 Mid-Test 1. Biochar is produced by so called______________of organic materials under limited supply of 2. Charcoal for application to soil called_____________________________ 3. The only difference between biochar and charcoal is in its_______________________ 4. Charcoal is produced for_______________than biochar. 5. What is the difference between biochar and charcoal? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. The term used for the type of biomass that is paralysed called________________________ 7. The most important factor controlling the properties of resulting biochar is______________ 8. Why biochar is reflected in its behaviour, function and fate in the soil? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Pyrolysis depends upon, processing conditions are__________________________________ 10. Ash content by weight in wheat straw is about? a) 12.2 b) 11.2 c) 14 d) 38 11. Ash content in switch grass by weight is about? a) 6 b) 18 c) 32 d) 0.27_1 12. Cellulose and lignin undergo thermal degradation at temperature range between_________ And_______________respectively. 13. Wood based feedstock generates coarser and more resistant biochar with carbon content? a) 50% b) 60% c) 70% d) 80% 14. Which of the following biomass having highest lignin content? a) Wheat straw b) maize residue c) olive husk d) switch grass 15. For comparable temperatures and residence time lignin loss is typically less than half of____________loss. 16. Woody feed stocks generally contains low proportion of________by weight of ash. 17. Biomass with high mineral contents such as__________,___________________and_______ 18. The feed stocks of rice husks and rice hulls contain ash content up to__________and______ Respectively. 19. Pyrolysis condition and feed stocks characteristics largely control the__________________ 20. Why biochar properties are highly heterogeneous? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 21. CEC of biochar varies from negligible to______________and C:N ranges from___to________ 22. pH of biochar typically __________to______________and such relatively constant. 23. How heterogeneity of biochar is usefull? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 24. As the pyrolysis temperature increases so the proportion of_________________in biochar increase due to loss of volatile matter. 25. The sequence of loss of volatile material during pyrolysis is___________________________ And conversion of alkyl C to____________.
  • 7. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com 26. Around ______0C, polyaromatic grapheme sheets begin to grow lateraly at the expense of_______________and eventually___________. 27. Above_________0C carbonization becomes the dominant process. 28. What is carbonization in biochar? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 29. What are the two main structural fraction of biochar? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 30. ______,______,_____,____and_____are found predominantly incorporated within the aromatic rings as heteroatoms. 31. What is the role of heteroatoms in biochar? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 32. What are the main components or chemical constituents of biochar composition? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 33. What will determine the relative proportions of biochar components? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 34. Coarser and more resistant biochar are generated by pyrolysis of______________________ 35. The ash content of biochar is dependent on the ash content of _______________________. 36. Biochar from chicken litter contain ash content of_____________%. 37. Moisture content up to__________by weight appears to be desirable. 38. Higher moisture content in biomass feedstock increase the________of biochar production and___________________for unit of biochar produced. 39. Total corbon content in biochar was found to range between______to___________g kg-1 . 40. Total Nitrogen in biochar varied between__________to_________ g kg-1 depending on feedstock. 41. Mineral Nitrogen content in biochar is less than__________mg Kg-1 . 42. NMR stands for_________________________________________ 43. What is the role of NMR spectroscopy? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 44. What indicates C:N ratio in any biomass? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 45. Total P and K content in biochar were found to range according to feedstock values between ______________and__________________ g kg-1 respectively. 46. The complex and hetrogenous chemical composition of biochar is extended to its ________. 47. Enlist the functional groups and How they are formed ? _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 48. The functional group are found on the outer surface of the______________and surface of ____________________________.
  • 8. M.Nadeem Ashraf M.sc (Hons) Soil Science UAF nadeemawan17@gmail.com 49. How functional groups crates coexisting areas and write down its properties? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________