ByM.Nadeem Ashraf2013-ag-10M.sc(Hons) Soil Science 1st SemesterEnvironmental Biology of Plants , BOT-709Environmental Cha...
 Biodiversity is the variety of all life forms: thedifferent plants, animals and micro-organisms, theirgenes and the eco...
 Humans are dependent on biodiversity for theirsustenance, health, well-being and enjoyment of life. Food- we rely on b...
Recreation- many recreation activities relyon or benefit from biodiversityInspiration- Biodiversity as a whole inspires...
 Sum total of biotic and abiotic components that createsfavorable and unfavorable conditions for the growthand survival ...
1. Climate change2. Loss of biodiversity3. Over-exploitation of the natural resource base4. Disruption to biogeochemical ...
“Human Stupidity is infinite”(Albert Einstein)
CLIMATE CHANGE
Climate change is a change in the "averageweather" that a given region experiences. Average weather includes all the fea...
In the atmosphere, gases such as: water vapour carbon dioxide ozone methane Nitrous Oxide Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs...
What is the Greenhouse Effect ?
Sea level rose by 10-20cm and Glacierdecreased by two-third in Switzerland.
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Harlequin FrogsAbout two-thirds ofCentral and SouthAmericas 110harlequin frog speciesare believed to havevanished during ...
At threat of extinction are : 1 out of 8 birds 1 out of 4 mammals 1 out of 4 conifers 1 out of 3 amphibians 6 out of...
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The BBC reportedon a “global-scalestudy” published inthe journal Sciencethat found climatechange could wipeout 20% of the...
Green vine snakeamongst thereptiles facingextinction.Moregenerally, 19% ofthe world’s reptilesare estimated to bethreaten...
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 Dry and sub-humid lands, including arid and semi-aridareas, grasslands, savannahs, and Mediterraneanlandscapes, are hom...
 Dry lands are particularly vulnerable to climate changebecause:• Small changes in temperature and rainfall patterns can...
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 Even small changes in temperature and precipitationcan have significant effects on forest growth. It has been shown th...
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 These are the 3 main concepts: More CO2 in the atmosphere means more CO2 in theocean; Atmospheric CO2 is dissolved in...
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 Scientist agree that the current warming trend cant bestopped or reversed, but that it can be slowed down toallow biolo...
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Climate Change and Loss ofBiodiversity in Pakistan
 Fourteen cyclones are recorded from 1970 to 2001 onSindh coast. Forests have declined from 260,000 hectares in 1970to ...
 .The fact that Pakistan is not a polluter yet it is on tophit list of 12 countries to be among the hard hitcountries due...
 Keti Bandar in the region of the coastal belt of Pakistanthat lost privileges of being at some point in time. Snow Leo...
Urial Snow Leopard
The Green Turtles are facingextinction all over the worlddue to low growth rate andenvironmental constraints.The Marine T...
The "Gharial" orMugger Crocodilein Pakistan found inlakes and marshesaround Karachiendangered now.
The Houbara Bustardhas been over huntedas a game bird inPakistan. It is anendangered species.
An endangeredspecies ofHimalayans BrownBear, found only inthe northern areas ofPakistan, facingextinction .
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What we Can Do?
 Conservations Reduce energy needs Recycling Alternate Energy Sources: Nuclear Wind Geothermal Hydroelectric Sol...
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In an effort to draw attention tothe mounting threats andopportunities, the CBDis calling on the nations of theworld to c...
2013 ag-10 M.Nadeem Ashraf
2013 ag-10 M.Nadeem Ashraf
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2013 ag-10 M.Nadeem Ashraf

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Environmental changes and loss of biodiversity

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  1. 1. ByM.Nadeem Ashraf2013-ag-10M.sc(Hons) Soil Science 1st SemesterEnvironmental Biology of Plants , BOT-709Environmental Changes and Lossof Biodiversity
  2. 2.  Biodiversity is the variety of all life forms: thedifferent plants, animals and micro-organisms, theirgenes and the ecosystems of which they are a part.Biodiversity
  3. 3.  Humans are dependent on biodiversity for theirsustenance, health, well-being and enjoyment of life. Food- we rely on biodiversity to provide us with alarge and varied food source Health- Humanity derives many of it’s medicinesfrom biodiversity.Importance Of Biodiversity
  4. 4. Recreation- many recreation activities relyon or benefit from biodiversityInspiration- Biodiversity as a whole inspiresartists, musicians and writers.Escape- Biodiversity provides a sanctuaryfrom the hustle and bustle of everyday life.The Value of Biodiversity
  5. 5.  Sum total of biotic and abiotic components that createsfavorable and unfavorable conditions for the growthand survival of living entities. Segments of Environment: Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere BiosphereEnvironment
  6. 6. 1. Climate change2. Loss of biodiversity3. Over-exploitation of the natural resource base4. Disruption to biogeochemical cycles and other aspectsof Earth system functioning5. Potential increase in hydro-meteorological extremeevents6. Air, water and soil pollution, and effects on humanhealth.What are the majorenvironmental challenges?
  7. 7. “Human Stupidity is infinite”(Albert Einstein)
  8. 8. CLIMATE CHANGE
  9. 9. Climate change is a change in the "averageweather" that a given region experiences. Average weather includes all the features weassociate with the weather such as: Temperature Wind patterns Precipitation.What is climate Change?
  10. 10. In the atmosphere, gases such as: water vapour carbon dioxide ozone methane Nitrous Oxide Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) These act like the glass roof of a greenhouse by trapping heatand warming the planet. These gases are called greenhousegases. The natural levels of these gases are being supplemented byemissions resulting from human activities, such as theburning of fossil fuels, farming activities and land-usechanges.FACING CLIMATE CHANGE
  11. 11. What is the Greenhouse Effect ?
  12. 12. Sea level rose by 10-20cm and Glacierdecreased by two-third in Switzerland.
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  25. 25. Harlequin FrogsAbout two-thirds ofCentral and SouthAmericas 110harlequin frog speciesare believed to havevanished during the1980s and 1990s. Theprimary culprit is thepathogenic chytridfungusBatrachochytriumdendrobatidis, whichhas been favored byglobal warming.
  26. 26. At threat of extinction are : 1 out of 8 birds 1 out of 4 mammals 1 out of 4 conifers 1 out of 3 amphibians 6 out of 7 marine turtles 75% of genetic diversity of agricultural crops has been lost 75% of the world’s fisheries are fully or over exploited Up to 70% of the world’s known species risk extinction if theglobal temperatures rise by more than 3.5°C 1/3rd of reef-building corals around the world are threatenedwith extinction Over 350 million people suffer from severe water scarcity.The International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) notes in a video that many species arethreatened with extinction.
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  28. 28. The BBC reportedon a “global-scalestudy” published inthe journal Sciencethat found climatechange could wipeout 20% of theworlds lizardspecies by 2080.
  29. 29. Green vine snakeamongst thereptiles facingextinction.Moregenerally, 19% ofthe world’s reptilesare estimated to bethreatened withextinction.
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  51. 51.  Dry and sub-humid lands, including arid and semi-aridareas, grasslands, savannahs, and Mediterraneanlandscapes, are home to 2 billion people (35% of theglobal population). These lands have great biological value and are home tomany of the world’s food crops and livestock.
  52. 52.  Dry lands are particularly vulnerable to climate changebecause:• Small changes in temperature and rainfall patterns can haveserious impacts on the biodiversity of dry and sub-humid lands.• Dry lands are already under stress from various activities,including conversion to agriculture, the introduction of invasive species,alterations to fire regimes, and pollution. Many people are highly dependent on dry lands biodiversity. For example, about 70% of Africans dependdirectly on dry and sub humid lands for their daily livelihoods.Vulnerability to climate change
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  55. 55.  Even small changes in temperature and precipitationcan have significant effects on forest growth. It has been shown that an increase of 1°C in thetemperature can modify the functioning andcomposition of forests. Many forest-dwelling large animals, half of the largeprimates, and nearly 9% of all known tree species arealready at some risk of extinction. Woody tree species are less able to shift pole wardwith changing climatic conditions.Forest Ecosystems Forests are particularlyvulnerable to climate change because:
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  61. 61.  These are the 3 main concepts: More CO2 in the atmosphere means more CO2 in theocean; Atmospheric CO2 is dissolved in the ocean, whichbecomes more acidic; and The resulting changes in the chemistry of the oceansdisrupts the ability of plants and animals in the seato make shells and skeletons of calcium carbonate,while dissolving shells already formed.Increasing oceanacidificationNational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
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  70. 70.  Scientist agree that the current warming trend cant bestopped or reversed, but that it can be slowed down toallow biological system and human society more timeto adapt.Is it too late to stop climatechange?
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  72. 72. Climate Change and Loss ofBiodiversity in Pakistan
  73. 73.  Fourteen cyclones are recorded from 1970 to 2001 onSindh coast. Forests have declined from 260,000 hectares in 1970to just 86,000 hectares in Sindh(95%) and Balochistan(5%) coast. Mangroves absorb 70-90% of wave energy andeffectively stop sea encroachment in deltaic region.The fragile ecosystem of coastal belt isunder severe threat due to climate change.
  74. 74.  .The fact that Pakistan is not a polluter yet it is on tophit list of 12 countries to be among the hard hitcountries due to climate change.Although Pakistan contributes least to globalwarming one 35th of the world’s average of CO2emissions.The level of air pollution in Pakistan’s large cities isestimated to be 20 % higher than internationalstandards.
  75. 75.  Keti Bandar in the region of the coastal belt of Pakistanthat lost privileges of being at some point in time. Snow Leopards are disappearing The "Urial" with its rounded hornsPakistan’s economic system hassuffered greatly due to climaticchange
  76. 76. Urial Snow Leopard
  77. 77. The Green Turtles are facingextinction all over the worlddue to low growth rate andenvironmental constraints.The Marine Turtle Project inPakistan is the last hope forthe survival of Green Turtlesin our region (Karachi)If the project was not there,our next generation wouldhave never known how theGreen Turtle looked like.
  78. 78. The "Gharial" orMugger Crocodilein Pakistan found inlakes and marshesaround Karachiendangered now.
  79. 79. The Houbara Bustardhas been over huntedas a game bird inPakistan. It is anendangered species.
  80. 80. An endangeredspecies ofHimalayans BrownBear, found only inthe northern areas ofPakistan, facingextinction .
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  82. 82. What we Can Do?
  83. 83.  Conservations Reduce energy needs Recycling Alternate Energy Sources: Nuclear Wind Geothermal Hydroelectric SolarMitigation of GlobalWarming
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  86. 86. In an effort to draw attention tothe mounting threats andopportunities, the CBDis calling on the nations of theworld to celebrate theInternational Day forBiological Diversity on 22 May2007 under the theme “climatechange and biodiversity”.

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