PaulEleman says, “We talk with our vocal cords. But we communicate with our facial expressions, our tone of voice, our whole body.”
MEANING “Body language is the unconscious and conscious transmission and interpretation of feelings, attitudes, and moods, through: body posture, movement, physical state, position and relationship to other bodies, objects and surroundings, facial expression and eye movement”.
KINESICS Kinesics means the study of role of body movements such as winking, shrugging, moving, walking, laughing etc. Movements of the body, or some part of it, used to communicate an idea, intention or feeling. It is the way people:• Reinforce the spoken word• Replace the spoken word using their bodies to make visual signals or their voices to make oral but non-verbal signals
KINESICS To interpret facial expressions correctly, it is important to take the communication context and culture into account. People in some cultures rarely show emotion (China); Asians will smile or laugh softly when they are embarrassed.
BODILY SPEAKING… According to the social anthropologist, Edward T. Hall, in a normal conversation between two persons, less than 35% of the social meanings is actually transmitted by words. So, at least 65% of it is conveyed through the body (non-verbal channel). 6
Importance Replace speech Regulate flow and rhythm of interaction Maintain attention Add emphasis to speech Make memorable the content of speech
Effective Use of Body Language Mind the body talk Be careful with the handshake Establish good eye contact Communicate at the level of the person before you We must be ourselves Graceful Movements and Confident posture improve the atmosphere at the workplace
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION FACIAL APPEARANCE EXPRESSIONS AND ATTIRE USE OFPOSTURE KINESICS HANDS/ HEAD USE USE USE OF OF OF LEGS EYES ARMS
FACIAL EXPRESSIONS Face is Index of mind. Thoughts of mind and feelings often find expression on the face. Generally associated with happiness, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, bewilderment, astonishment and contentment.
Kinesics: facial expression Birdwhistle (1970): the face is capable of conveying 250,000 expressions
FACE The face is capable of conveying 250,000 expressions (Birdwhistle, 1970). Impact factors: Verbal Impact, 7 percent Vocal Impact, 38 percent Facial Impact, 55 percent 14
EYES* Most expressive part of human beings.* Eyes along with eyebrows, eyelids and the size of pupil convey inner most feelings.* E.g. Dilated pupil tells that person is surprised or excited.* Eye contacts - Encouraged in America, Canada, Europe - Rude in most Asian countries and in Africa* Raising eyebrows - “Yes” in Thailand and some Asian countries - “Hello” in the Philippines - Asking question in India. 15
EYES (Cont’d)* Winking eye - Sharing secret in America and Europe - flirtatious gesture in other countries* Closed eyes - bored or sleepy in America, India. - “I’m listening and concentrating.” in Japan, Thailand, China 16
SMILE, NOSE, EARSThese body parts communicate different things Smiling increases sociability, likeability, attraction.* Ear grasp: eg I’m sorry.” in parts of India* Cupping the ear: eg. “I can’t hear you.” in all societies* Holding the nose: eg. “Something smells bad.” universal* Nose tap: eg: “It’s confidential.” England
CHEEKS, LIPS AND MOUTH* Cheek screw: eg. gesture of praise - Italy - “That’s crazy.” Germany* Whistle, yawn, smile, bite, point, sneeze, spit….* Open mouth: Any display of the open mouth is considered very rude in most countries. 18
GESTURES These are observed actions. Non vocal bodily movements intended to express meaning. These may be articulated with hands, arms or body
We categorize Gestures into5 different kinds.
1. Affect DisplaysMovements of the face to convey or show emotionsHappy, sad, fear, anger, etc.
2. EmblemsSubstitutions for wordsSpecific verbal translationEX: “OK,” “peace,” “be quiet”
3. Illustrators Accompany and literally illustrate the verbal message EX: Saying, “Let’s go” while motioning with your hands for them to go, it was “this big” while showing how big, making a circular motion while talking about a circle
Illustrator Asking, “What time is it?” At the same time, pointing to your watch.
4. RegulatorsMonitor, maintain, or control the speaking of another individual.EX: nodding your head, “keep going,” “speed up.”
Regulators Who is sending an “I’m really listening” regulator QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. message? How do you know?
5. Adaptors Satisfy a need & are usually unconscious 3 types: 1. Self-adaptors 2. Alter-adaptors 3. Object-adaptors
5. Adaptors1. Self-adaptors: satisfy a physical need EX: scratching your head, pushing your hair out of your face
5. Adaptors1. Self-adaptors2. Alter-adaptors: body movements you make in response to your current interactions EX: crossing your arms when someone unpleasant approaches
5. Adaptors1. Self-adaptors2. Alter-adaptors3. Object-adaptors: manipulation of objects; often happen when feeling hostile EX: clicking pen, chewing pencil
SPEECH INDEPENDENT GESTURES Autonomous gestures, or emblems Direct verbal translation High agreement among users
SPEECH RELATED GESTURES Illustrators--directly tied to, or accompany, speech. Four common types are: gestures related to speaker’s referent gestures indicating speaker’s relationship to the referent visual punctuation interaction gestures
REFERENT RELATED Characterize the content of our speech Such as pointing at objects Pointing in a general direction
RELATIONSHIP TO THE REFERENT Comment on the speaker’s orientation to the referent Eg: How much you care?
PUNCTUATION GESTURES Accent or emphasize a single word Coincides with the primary voice stress Used for commas, periods, etc..... Can be accomplished with gestures, body movements, and eye and vocal changes too
INTERACTION GESTURES Used to acknowledge the other relative to the speaker Help to regulate and organize the interaction Turn-exchange behaviors Nearly 1/2 of gestures in an interaction serve this purpose Gestures are not limited to a single function
POSTURE Itrefers to the way one stands, sits or walk. A persons bodily stance communicates a rich variety of messages. Postures are ways of positioning the body or certain parts of it, such as slouching in a chair or kneeling in prayer.
•Both postures and gestures are undermore conscious control than facialexpressions and more regulated bycultural norms and conventions.•Good posture should be natural andrelaxed, not stiff and tense. As with allother elements of your speaking, verbaland non-verbal, it takes practice.
Basic Types of Body Language Postures OPEN / CLOSED: People with arms folded and legs crossed and bodies turned away are signaling that they are rejecting messages. People showing open hands, fully facing you and both feet planted on the ground are accepting them. A slumped posture indicates that you have low spirits, are fatigued or that you feel inferior. Whereas, an erect posture shows high spirits and confidence.
Basic Types of Body Language postures FORWARD/ BACK: When people are leaning forward and pointing towards you they are actively accepting or rejecting the message. When they are leaning back, looking up at the ceiling, doodling on a pad, cleaning their glasses they are either passively absorbing or ignoring it.
HANDS* Of all the body parts, the hands are probably used most for communicating non-verbally.* Hand waves are used for greetings, beckoning, or farewells. 43
HANDS* The Italian “good-bye” wave can be interpreted by Americans as the gesture of “come here.”* The American “good-bye” wave can be interpreted in many parts of Europe and Latin America as the signal for “no.” 44
HANDS (Cont’d)* Beckoning. * The American way of getting attention (raising a hand with the index finger raised above head) could be considered rude in Japan, and also means “two” in Germany. * The American “come here” gesture could be seen as an insult in most Asian countries. * In China, to beckon a waiter to refill your tea, simply turn your empty cup upside down. 45
HANDS (Cont’d)* Right hand. The right hand has special significance in many societies. In certain countries in the Middle East and in Asia, it is best to present business cards or gifts, or to pass dishes of food, to get an attention, using only the right hand or both.* Left hand is considered unclean in much of the Middle East and in parts of Indonesia. 46
HANDS (Cont’d)* Hang loose. (thumb and little finger extended)* could convey different meanings: * in Hawaii, it’s a way of saying, “Stay cool,” or “Relax.” * in Japan, it means six. * In Mexico (do vertically), it means, “Would you like a drink?” 47
HANDS (Cont’d)* Clapping hands. * Russians and Chinese may use applause to greet someone. * In many central and eastern Europe, audience frequently clap in rhythm. 48
HANDSHAKE* Handshaking is a form of greeting in most Western cultures. * In the Middle East, a gentle grip is appropriate. * In most Asian cultures, a gentle grip and an avoidance of direct eye contact is appropriate. 49
HANDSHAKETypes of Handshake A firm handshake: shows confidence and keenness. A limp handshake: shows lack of confidence, inferiority complex. A clasp: using both hands suggest high degree of warmth and respect. A vice like grip: a right grip which makes the other person uncomfortable, suggest some kind of dominance. 50
The knuckle Grinder
Common Gesture Clusters Evaluation:Evaluation gestures say that the other person is being thoughtful or is considering what you are saying. Sometimes in a friendly way sometimes in an unfriendly way.Typical evaluation gestures include tilted head, hand to cheek, leaning forward and chin stroking
Common Gesture Clusters Evaluation:Sometimes evaluation gestures take on a critical aspect. The body is more drawn back The hand is to the face but the chin is in the palm of the hand with one finger going up the cheek and the other fingers positioned below the mouth. This is generally an unfavorable gesture.
Common Gesture Clusters Evaluation:To gain time for evaluating the situation people use cigarette or pipe smoking habits, removing eyeglasses.A final negative evaluation gesture is dropping his eyeglasses to the lower bridge of noise and peering over them.This gesture usually causes a negative emotional overreaction in other people.
Body Language (Kinesics):
Body Language (Kinesics):
Body Language (Kinesics):
FINGERS* The “O.K.” signal. (the thumb and forefinger form a circle) means * “fine,” or “O.K.” in most cultures, * “zero” or “worthless” in some parts of Europe * “money” in Japan * an insult in Greece, Brazil, Italy, Turkey, Russia and some other countries 62
FINGERS (Cont’d)* “Thumb-up” means: * “O.K.” “good job” or “fine” in most cultures, * “Up yours!” in Australia * “Five” in Japan; “One” in Germany* Avoid a thumb-up in these countries: Australia, New Zealand, Greece, Turkey, Iran, Russia, and most African countries. 63
Appearance & AttireA man is recognized by his “dress & address”. “Address” means the way person speak to the others. Initially the audience judge the speaker from his physical appearance, physique, attractiveness, personal hygiene, body odour, hair style and even from our skin tone.
Activity Watch a scene from a television drama with the sound turned down, paying particular attention to non-verbal clues. Watch again with sound. How much of a contribution has the performance ofnon-verbal codes made to the meaning of the scene and the identity of the characters?