Land and LaborRelations in Global Context Analysis by: William Cheung
Background Information Forms or forced labor have been place for thousands of years, in the world. Ranging from humans bound to property or, to servitude over a set time period; slave labor served a dependent factor of regions all over the world. Culture, societal structure, and natural environments all play a major role in determining the labor types in a specific region. Later on in history, humans would become a principle commodity in globalization. With slave trade routes reaching almost all inhabited regions on Earth, it allowed for humans to become fully united and allowed for cultural diffusion to take place on a massive scale.
What are the underlying causes of Land and Labor Relationships?Global Framework of Land and Labor Relations
Basic Relationships Land and Labor systems have very close relationships. Labor costs are basically determined the number of people available to work per section of land. For example, when labor was plentiful to work a section of land, the cost to purchase a slave is less expensive and vice versa when labor was scarce. The land and resources of a region play a major role in determining the relationships formed between laborers and land. Contrasting from South America, the Caribbean Islands lacked mineral wealth, but had many prospective plantation sites. Alas, the islands contained a very scarce native work force, which would later lead to tremendous increases in slaves being imported from Africa. Many believe that the successful conquest of the Inca Empire was due largely to the exceedingly advanced labor system in place. Land and labor relationships are heavily affected by conquests and evolution of rulers. In the Incan Empire a Mit’a system was created for central government tax coordination. Whenever the Spanish took over the Inca Empire, the adjusted the Labor system to fit their desires of gaining wealth.
How have culturesthroughout history used forced labor?
Forced Labor Practices Russia: The dynamics of labor costs based on land and labor availability was present in the Tsarist Russia. In the 16th century when serfs and other labors were placed under the control of the elite/noble class. Russian Tsars in Moscow reformed and decreed many laws to give the noble class increased power deducing peasants bound to serfdom to almost slaves. Furthermore, the wealthy, who lived in urban settings found slavery as a symbol of supremacy and elite status, therefore slaves were sometimes bought to always be at their sides. A Depiction of the Manorial System Portugal: The Portuguese were some of the earliest to participate in the African Slave Trade. Before using them to work on plantations in Americas, slaves were originally sent to Portugal to work in rural communities as artisans and farmers. Roman Empire: The workforce in the Roman Empire depended heavily on slavery. Most slaves were prisoners of wars, who were spared of death for greater economic gain With the rapidly expanding empire, forced labor was used to help extend roadways. These roads served several purposes in the slave trade, by connecting slave estates with markets. Eastern Europe: Preceding the fall of the Roman Empire, forced labor in the form of serfdom continued to play a vital role in the Manorial System. The need for security and employment, forced many free humans into becoming serfs.
Forced Labor Practices Malaysia and Indonesia: A distinct class of force laborers developed in the Malayan Peninsula and Indonesian Archipelago. Contrasting from most forms of forced labor, farm-bound people were neither serfs or slaves but were working to pay off debts. They held all personal liberties, but were required to pension off their products to the landlord. South East Asian (Islamic City-States): Unlike the Roman Empire, members of the forced labor class in these regions were usually the same ethnicity of their masters. In the Islamic dominated city ports of Malacca and Makassar, the forced labor class did not work on plantations or estates, but worked as Slaves journeying on the entertainers, weavers, and spinners, demonstrating that resources and Middle Passage location of regions can affect laborThe slavery in Africa could not relationships.prepare the enslaved Africans The Americas (Mexica, Inca, European for their journey to the Plantations): Over twelve million slaves wereAmericas or their future life on transported to the Americas to work in plantation growing tobacco, sugar cane, and plantations. cotton between the 16th and 19th centuries.
How did conquestaffect Systems of land and labor?
European and American Conquests Ottomans gaining control of Constantinople: In 1453, the Middle Eastern slave trade significantly increased with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks. The Ottoman rise to power, pressured the Portuguese and Spanish to find trade routes that would avoid the Islamic Empire. This would start the Atlantic Explorations, which would eventually bring on the Columbian Exchange, and augmented Slave Trade from Africa. European colonization and establishment of plantations in America: As Europeans began to colonize the Americas; several adverse and profound effects fell through including slavery. In American plantations, it was common to work laborers to death. By 1508, only a half a million A painting of enslaved natives Natives were left on the Bahamas Islands. working in a Sugar Cane Within a half-century the numbers were reduced to 500. Additionally, many slaves changed to Plantation serfs for protection. This would lead to the establishment of the Haciendas system, which was where peasants tied to serfdom, working for wealthy Europeans. The Hacienda system remained prevalent in Central and Southern America up until the 1970’s.
How and why did laborSystems change on a global scale after 1500?Transformation in Labor System after the 1500’s
Columbian Exchange Following the Columbus’s explorations in America, European countries began establishing colonies and plantations. The Columbian Exchange transformed small-scale slave trade into global commodity. To help control the extensive slave trades, organizations were establish for governmental control. These companies would eventually expand into immense corporations with their own armies that would often fight with rival corporations and even countries. In early times, land and labor relationships were tied more locally. With the expansion to regional and transoceanic trade routes, labor patterns began to shift. The transportations of humans between the 1500-1800 CE played a major role in globalization and cultural diffusion.
Wage Laborers and Industrial Revolution After the 1500’s and early on in the Industrial Revolution, land and labor systems began to shift as new machinery replaced part of the workforce. The utilization of slavery began to vary in European countries in the late 1500’s, with it eventually declining towards the 19th century. As many different forms of slave labor developed in the Americas and other parts of the world, Europe initiated some of the earliest systems of wage/free labors. A depiction of a factory. In the Industrial Revolution, numerous factories containing machinery would replace part of the work force.
How did massive forced labor migrations between the sixteenthand nineteenth centuries contribute to globalization? Affects of Forced Labor Migrations on Globalization
Globalization Although forced labor was very appalling, it aided in uniting the entire world, by providing a global connector. The augmented global contact of people would lead to diffusion of cultures, philosophies, and even different societies. Above all, the slave trade was a global integrator. • With the widespread knowledge of Americas to Europeans, many countries were seeking to establish plantations and colonies to gain as much wealth as possible. Because of the bounty of land, human labor forces were very important in establishing new economic ventures in the “ new” world. During this period of massive labor migrations, the entire world became united, commencing extensive globalization.
Works Cited "Bridging World History: Unit 14: Land and Labor Relationships: Video Segment." Learner.org. Annenburg Foundation, n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2011. <http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/unit_vide o_14-1.html>. Stearns, Peter N. World Civilizations: The Global Experience "AP Edition". 5th. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. Print.