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  • 1. A Comprehensive Analysis of Christopher Columbus By: William Cheung
  • 2. Background Information s  Christopher  Columbus  was  born  on   October  31,  1451,  in  Genoa,  Italy,  to  a  family   of  weavers  and  merchants.  At  a  early  age,   Columbus  often  participated  in  small   trading  voyages  along  the  Mediterranean   and  Aegean  Seas.     s  Later  on  his  life,  Columbus  moved  to   Portugal.  While  living  in  Lisbon,  Portugal,   he  met  and  married  Felipa  Perestrello,   whom  he  had  one  son,  Diego  with.  Felipa   passed  away  shortly  after  having  their   child,  prompting  him  to  move  to  Spain.   Columbus  initially  asked  the  Portuguese   government  to  fund  his  expedition,  but   they  declined.  However  he  did  make  one   A  painting  of  a  younger  Columbus   unsuccessful  trading  voyage  out  into  the   He  wrote  in  his  retired  life  about   Atlantic  in  1476.  His  fleet  was  attacked  and  making  his  first  sea  voyage  at  the  age   burned,  forcing  him  to  swim  back  to   of  10. Portuguese  shores.  
  • 3. The Voyage that Altered Historys  Unsuccessful  in  Portugal,  Christopher  Columbus  decided  to  relocate  to   Spain.  He  was  Initially  rejected  by  the  Spanish  monarchy,  but  later   gained  permission  in  January  of  1492.  King  Ferdinand  and  Queen   Isabella  promised  to  finance  the  expedition  and  he  set  sail,  on  August   of  the  same  year.    s  After  36  Days  of  sailing,  he  landed  on  the  Bahamas  Islands,  claiming   them  for  Spain.  His  fleet  was  met  by  very  friendly  natives,  who  he   describes  in  his  passages  as  inferior  to  the  Europeans.  The  natives   begin  exchanging,  cotton,  glass  beads,  parrots,  and  spears  with   Columbus.  However,  what  intrigued  him  the  most  was  the  gold   jewelry  that  adorned  the  natives.  The  small-­‐scale  trade  that  took  place   during  this  voyage  would  eventually  turn  into  a  global  phenomenon.   Columbus  continued  his  journey  by  visiting  the  islands  of  Cuba  and   Hispaniola  (Haiti  and  the  Dominican  Republic.  During  his  journey   between  the  different  islands,  the  Santa  Maria  ran  up  a  reef,  thus   leaving  it  ruined.  The  islanders  helped  him  salvage  what  was  left  of  the   Santa  Maria,  Nina,  and  Pinta   ship  and  use  the  timber  to  build  the  small  Spanish  settlement  Villa  de   Christopher  Columbuss  fleet la  Navidad  (Christmas  Town)  Thirty-­‐nine  of  his  men  remained  behind   and  were  left  to  live  in  the  settlement.  Christopher  Columbus  returned   in  early  1493  with  the  Pinta  and  Nina,  convinced  that  he  had   discovered  another  route  to  Asia.  s   Excerpt  from  his  letter  to  the  Spanish  Monarchy   s  …Even  should  these  people  change  their  intentions  towards  us  and   become  hostile,  they  do  not  know  what  arms  are,  but,  as  I  have  said,  go   naked,  and  are  the  most,  timid  in  the  world  country,  and  this  island  has   no  danger  for  them,  if  only  they  knew  how  o  conduct  themselves…   Columbus  was  never  successful  in  finding  large   deposits  of  gold,  something  he  knew  would   make  Spain  and  himself  wealthy.
  • 4. The Voyage that Altered History Excerpt  from  Christopher  Columbus’s  Journal     Saturday,  13  October.   …They  came  loaded  with  balls  of  cotton,  parrots,  javelins,  and  other  things  too   numerous  to  mention;  these  they  exchanged  for  whatever  we  chose  to  give  them.   I  was  very  attentive  to  them,  and  strove  to  learn  if  they  had  any  gold.  Seeing  some   of  them  with  little  bits  of  this  metal  hanging  at  their  noses,  I  gathered  from  them   by  signs  that  by  going  southward  or  steering  round  the  island  in  that  direction,   there  would  be  found  a  king  who  possessed  large  vessels  of  gold,  and  in  great   quantities.  I  endeavored  to  procure  them  to  lead  the  way  thither,  but  found  they   were  unacquainted  with  the  route.  I  determined  to  stay  here  till  the  evening  of  the   next  day,  and  then  sail  for  the  southwest;  for  according  to  what  I  could  learn  from   them,  there  was  land  at  the  south  as  well  as  at  the  southwest  and  northwest  and   those  from  the  northwest  came  many  times  and  fought  with  them  and  proceeded   on  to  the  southwest  in  search  of  gold  and  precious  stones.  This  is  a  large  and  level   island,  with  trees  extremely  flourishing,  and  streams  of  water;  there  is  a  large  lake   in  the  middle  of  the  island,  but  no  mountains:  the  whole  is  completely  covered   with  verdure  and  delightful  to  behold.  The  natives  are  an  inoffensive  people,  and   so  desirous  to  possess  any  thing  they  saw  with  us,  that  they  kept  swimming  off  to   the  ships  with  whatever  they  could  find,  and  readily  bartered  for  any  article  we   saw  fit  to  give  them  in  return,  even  such  as  broken  platters  and  fragments  of  glass.  Christopher  Columbus   I  saw  in  this  manner  sixteen  balls  of  cotton  thread  which  weighed  above  twenty-­‐meeting  the  natives  and   five  pounds,  given  for  three  Portuguese  ceutis.  This  traffic  I  forbade,  and  suffered   no  one  to  take  their  cotton  from  them,  unless  I  should  order  it  to  be  procured  for   exchanging  products. your  Highnesses,  if  proper  quantities  could  be  met  with.  It  grows  in  this  island,  but   from  my  short  stay  here  I  could  not  satisfy  myself  fully  concerning  it;  the  gold,  also,   which  they  wear  in  their  noses,  is  found  here,  but  not  to  lose  time,  I  am   determined  to  proceed  onward  and  ascertain  whether  I  can  reach  Cipango.  At   night  they  all  went  on  shore  with  their  canoes.  ..  
  • 5. Subsequent Voyagess  Columbus  was  welcomed  by  the  royal  court   when  he  arrived  with  exaggerated  tales  of  his   discoveries.  Kind  Ferdinand  and  Queen  Isabella   decided  to  finance  another  expedition  and   Columbus  set  sail  later  in  the  year.  This  time  his   fleet  consisted  of  seventeen  ships  and  1000   men.  Upon  returning  to  Villa  de  la  Navidad,  he   found  the  settlement  decimated  and  the   settlers  massacred.    Greatly  angered,  he   enslaved  part  of  the  native  population,  forcing   them  to  rebuild  the  settlements  and  to  search   for  gold.  Columbus’s  as  well  as  the  Spanish   ethnocentric  view  of  the  Taino  (natives)  would   lead  to  the  creating  of  the  Spanish  Ecomienda   System.  The  world  would  later  see  the   significant  rise  of  slave  labor.  Unfortunately,   A  depiction  of  enslaved  Taino   little  gold  was  found  and  the  tension  between   Natives the  natives  and  explores  increased.  As  he   continued  to  visit  the  other  islands  he  laid  claim   on  them  for  Spain  and  began  naming  after   Christian  patrons  and  saints.    
  • 6. Subsequent Voyages s  After  returning  to  Spain  from  his  second   voyage,  he  became  very  popular  for   claiming  new  land  for  the  monarchy.   Following  the  agreement  made  towards   the  onset  of  his  exploration,  Spain  named   him  as  the  governor  of  Hispaniola.   Columbus  was  then  granted  permission  and   finances  to  embark  on  the  third  voyage.  For   this  voyage  he  decided  to  take  a  more   southern  route.  After  reaching  the  Orinoco   river,  he  went  onto  South  American   mainland  onto  areas  he  named  Tobago  and   This  map  shows  the  different   Grenada.  This  marked  the  second  European   routes  taken.  Christopher   explorer  to  ever  step  foot  on  the  mainland   Columbus  never  reached  the   of  the  Americas.  Christopher  Columbus  mainland  until  his  third  voyage.   made  his  final  voyage  in  May  of  1502.  He   continued  claiming  more  land  for  Spain,  but   This  would  mark  a  new  era  of   was  unsuccessful  in  finding  large  amounts  exploration  and  colonization  for   of  gold.     the  Americas  and  Europe.    
  • 7. Impact and After Effectss  Christopher  Columbus  is  credited  with  opening  up  the  Americas  to   European  colonization,  but  he  actually  died  never  knowing  that  he  had   discovered  another  continent.  His  impact  can  be  seen  in  both  a  negative  and   positive  way.  With  his  discovery  of  the  new  world,  Europeans  were  able  to   gain  further  insight  allowing  them  to  eventually  modernize  the  “New”   World.  Additionally,  the  small-­‐scale  trade  with  the  native  Bahamians  evolved   into  a  worldwide  exchange  of  products,  people  (including  slaves),  and  even   diseases.  The  widespread  change  would  lead  to  some  adverse  profound   effects,  altering  the  Americas,  Africa,  and  Europe.  The  initial  benefits  and   economic  gain  went  to  the  Europeans  before  spreading  out  to  other   regions.  New  diseases  were  distributed  to  Europe  and  the  Americas,  but  the   Native  American  population  was  hit  the  hardest.   A  Map  of  the  many  different   products  and  diseases   exchanged  between  the   Americas,  Europe,  and  Africa.
  • 8. Columbus’s Legacys  Christopher  Columbuss  multiple  voyages  to  the  “new”  world   would  leave  history  forever  changed  and  initiate  the  dawn  of  a   new  modern  era.  Although,  he  is  acclaimed  for  exposing  the   Americas  to  Europe  and  the  modern  society,  he  is  criticized  for   leading  to  the  devastation  of  the  traditional  Native  Americans.   Similar  to  the  Silk  Route,  the  Columbian  Exchange  would   evolve  into  a  trans-­‐continental  exchange  of  people,  plants,   animals,  diseases,  and  cultures.  The  native  Americans  were  left   altered  and  many  aspect  of  the  traditional  way  of  life  of  natives   were  lost.     Tomb  of  Christopher   Columbus  located  in   Seville
  • 9. Picture Collage
  • 10. Works Citeds  Primary  Source  Document  Resources   s  Letter  Excerpt    Stearns,  Peter  N.,  comp.  World  Civilizations:  The  Global  Experience  "AP  Edition".  5th.  New  York:  Pearson  Education,  Inc.,  2007.  Print.   s  Journal  Excerpt  Halsall,  Paul,  comp.  Medieval  Sourcebook:  Christopher  Columbus:  Extracts  From  Journal.  New  York  :  Fordham  University,  1996.  Web.  9  Dec.  2011.  <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/columbus1.asp>.    s  Information  Sources  s  "Christopher  Columbus  biography."  bio.  True  Story.  A&E  Television  Networks,  LLC.,  2011.  Web.   9  Dec  2011.  http://www.biography.com/people/christopher-­‐columbus-­‐9254209.  s  Tirado,  Dr.  Thomas  C.  "Christopher  Columbus  and  his  Legacy."  BBC-­‐History.  N.p.,  2011.  Web.  10   Dec  2011.  <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/columbus_legacy_01.shtml>.  s  Robinson,  Sue.  "Christopher  Columbus:  A  Globally  Transforming  Figure."  The  Jepson  Blog.   N.p.,  2010.  Web.  10  Dec  2011.  <http://blog.richmond.edu/jepson/2010/10/12/christ>.  s  "Christopher  Columbus."  Totally  History.  N.p.,  2011.  Web.  10  Dec  2011.  <http:// totallyhistory.com/christopher-­‐columbus/>.