Thesis : Pet overpopulation in the U.S. leaves millions of animals homeless and has become a major problem that was manmade and must be solved by man in a humane manner.\n
Ever since I was young I&#x2019;ve adored animals. I was always the classic little kid who you didn&#x2019;t want to take to the SPCA because I would beg and want to take home every animal. Not much has changed, I still wish I could give every animal a home, although I now realize that isn&#x2019;t possible at least right now. When people think of the negative things that happen to animals they generally think of the extreme animal abuse cases. I wanted to do my project on homeless animals and overpopulation because it&#x2019;s a big problem that people often do not realize. I was lucky growing up and we always had cats. These pictures are of different cats I&#x2019;ve had growing up.\n
In 1866 the first SPCA was created by Henry Bergh in New York City. SPCA stands for Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. At the time, New York City had more animal residences than people. However, things were much different back then and this included wild hogs, sheep, cows and horse. In 1879 the first National Companion Animal Organization (The American Humane Association)was founded. By 1910, almost every major city in the U.S. had either a SPCA or Humane Society. Each of these SPCAs had separate funding, staff, rules and policies, however they were all focused on ending animal cruelty. At this time the SPCAs promoted lifetime commitments and the importance of keeping animals indoors. They began to offer homeless animals for adoption and replaced the old slow and painful killing of strays with the use of gas chambers. After Bergh (founder) died, shelters changed their primary purpose to killing animals rather than finding homes for them.\n
After World War II a series of changes took place. First people's attitudes towards cats and dogs changed and they began to think of them as companions rather than servants. Second, veterinarians gained the ability to perform sterilization of animals easily, safely and at lower costs. Sterilization is an operation performed which renders the animal unable to reproduce. The procedure is also referred to as spaying in female animals and neutering in male animals. Another change was the growth of the middle class which led to a spread of the wealth and an increase in donations to animal welfare organizations. The last change was suburbanization. People moved from farms into cities and then into suburbs which had yards and parks. These suburban houses became the perfect homes for pets. In 1971 the first funded spay/neuter clinic in the U.S. for companion animals in low income households was created. It was a huge success and by 1979 three more clinics had been opened. Things looked positive but budget cuts eventually closed these clinics. Around 1974 a series of laws were passed which confined cat and dogs to their homes, required dogs and cats to be licensed, limited the number of animals a family could have and prohibited feeding stray animals. These laws however only increased the number of killings in shelters. It was not 'til 1994 in San Francisco that the idea of No-Kill shelters was raised and tried. In 2001, Nathan J. Winowad became the executive director of the Tompkins County SPCA in New York and made Tompkins County the first complete No-Kill Community in the nation.\n
Today:\nEach year 8 million strays and unwanted pets are taken in by shelters throughout the U.S.\nApproximately 4 million animals are euthanized (uthenized) (killed) because homes cannot be found each year (half)\nShelter euthanasia (uthenasia) is the leading cause of death for cats and dogs in the U.S.\n\nWhat happens is when shelters become overcrowded, they kill animals who they do not think will be adopted to make room for other animals.\n
Companion animal overpopulation has become a danger and problem. Financially, it has become an issue. Animal shelters spend an estimated one billion dollars annually in order to deal with unwanted companion animals. Another 500 million is estimated to be spend on animal control each year to deal with feral (wild) cats and dogs. Homeless animals propose a danger to humans. Each year there are around 20-30 deaths caused by dog bites. Recent studies found an estimated 4.5 million dogs bites are treated each year. This proposes an even greater danger when the dogs are feral because they can carry rabies or other infections and diseases. Also, stray cats and dogs are most likely no spayed/neutered, making them more aggressive, more likely to attack people and more likely to have poor health. Stray cats and dogs are also the cause of many automobile accidents each year. Besides the human dangers that homeless pets impose, millions of companion animals are killed each year because the shelters do not have enough room. This means about half of the innocent and healthy animals turned into shelters are not adopted and put to sleep. \n
Part of the overpopulation problem is biology. When humans domesticated cats and dogs they took them out of their natural habitat and changed the course of their evolution. Now wild dogs and cats are not native to most of the places that they occupy therefore they tend to remain untouched by their natural predators. However although their natural habitats have changed, their breeding tendency have remained the same. A single female cat can have 3 litters of about 5 cats per year. This means that in seven years, her and her offspring could produce 420,000 cats. Each breed of dog is different, but on average dogs have 2 litters a year of around 6 pups, leading to one female dog and her offspring producing 67,000 puppies in six years. Commercial Breeding and Pet Stores are also a big contributor to the problem. Commercial breeders bring millions of dogs and cats into the already overpopulated world. Each pet that is purchased from pet stores and commercial breeders is one less pet that is being adopted from a shelter. In addition to this, purebred animals that are purchased often end up in the shelters. One-quarter of the dogs in shelters were originally bought from pet stores and breeders only to be abandoned. \n
1 in every 5 companion animals become lost during their life. Of these lost animals, only about 16% of dogs and 2% of cats are reclaimed by their owners. The animals who are not claimed are added to the shelters. The social attitude of many Americans is a major contributor to the overpopulation at shelters. Over 30% of the animals at shelters are surrendered by their owners. Too many people adopt animals without thinking over the responsibilities that it entitles. Many Americans think of animals as simply disposable if they do not want it anymore. One of the largest contributor to pet over-population is failure to spay/neuter.\n
Puppy Mills not only contribute to the pet overpopulation, but they cause suffering to countless dogs. Puppy Mills mass breed dogs and house them in overcrowded, poor conditions. Puppy Mills often result in dogs with behavior and health problems due to the neglect, improper care in which they were given and the poor conditions where they were kept. \n
-a feral cat is a descendant of a domesticated cat that has returned to the wild. \n-also referred to as barn cats, alley cats, wild cats\n-some are born in parks and alleyways and will never be accustomed to people and others are &#x2018;marginally&#x2019; cared for and live in peoples backyards, garages, barns, or travel from doorstep to doorstep being fed occasional food\n- feral cats come about when household cats become strays and reproduce; their offspring will grow up without human contact and be feral\n-feral cats typically live in colonies of other feral cats\n- TNR: trap, neuter, return; this is a program where feral cats are captured and spay/neutered and given vaccinations against rabies and then released back into their environment. When this occurs they also surgically ear-tip on of the ears which is a universal recognized sign of a cat who has been TNRed. after being TNRed a dedicated caretakers will feed the cats, provide shelter, and monitor them against danger and disease\n- since there will always be feral cats, TNR is the only effective way to control the problem\n- if a cat appears to be tame when captured, it is mostly like a stray rather than a feral and will usually be put of for adoption; stray cats have been lost or abandoned from their homes but are accustomed to and dependent on people \n\n
Companion animals have feelings so closely related to those of humans. These animals can help us in so many ways yet people so often take companion animals for granted. Animals can be extremely therapeutic and healing to humans. Animals have been known to help people overcome trauma and abuse. Pets have emotions and are 100 percent capable of loving, which is what draws humans to them. Animals have been proven to decrease high blood pressure, reduce chances of loneliness and depression in humans and to increase the survival rate of heart attack victims. Animals are amazing beings. A study of U.S. university students showed that those who had grown up with dogs or cats were more self-confident than those who did not. Another study showed that children who had lived with dogs were more empathic and pro-socially oriented than children without pets. So if animals can help us so much and are able to show so much love towards us, why can&#x2019;t we return the favor and help them?\n\n
A No-Kill Nation is attainable. It starts with education. People need to be educated about the problem and the causes of it in order for it to be fixed. The next major step is low cost spay/neuter programs. Spay/neutering is the only way to stop the overpopulation. Spay/neuter programs often are cut because they are not given enough time to show the actual longterm effects. For feral cats TNR programs are needed. Help from rescue groups and foster care volunteer is also greatly needed. Foster care will be talked about in next slide. Volunteers at shelters are extremely important to care for the animals as well as socializing them so that people want to adopt them. Adoption programs and promotion is needed to make adoption easier for adopters and well-known so that they do not adopt from breeders or pet stores instead. It is important for people to adopt pets from shelters and rescues rather than pet stores and breeders. By adopting pets from pets store and breeders, you increase their demand for animals and they breed more. This is unfair to the millions of homeless pets in shelters. Pet retention programs also would help the problem because they would help pets with behavioral problems and work with families who need help with their pets instead and them simply relinquishing them. Lastly, passionate people are needed to give these programs time to show their positive affects and to care about the animals enough to want to fix this problem.\n
Often puppies and kittens are put into temporary foster care with volunteer families until they are 6 to 8 weeks old and therefore able to be sterilized and put up for adoption. Shelters sometimes put sick or injured pets into foster homes as well which allows the animal time to heal in a calm, home environment. When this happens the foster family is given compensation for the medicine and medical bills. Other times if foster families are available, abandoned pets will be given to them because this helps to make them more adjusted and sociable, making them more appealing to future adopters. When at a foster home, animals with behavioral problem are given the proper time and care to become trained for their future adopting family. Fostering is also beneficial for the animals because when they&#x2019;re left in cage at a shelter, they often become depressed. Foster care gives shelters more holding capacity and are therefore able to care for more animals. Foster care programs are run by most shelters. Before starting foster care, one must fill out an application and get approved by authorities.\n
Mandatory spay/neuter laws are very controversial. Those who oppose the laws argue that the laws would cause more problems than solutions. Opposers believe that since companion pets are considered personal property, it is not the governments place to become involved. Also, breeders would no longer be able to compete in competitions, and those who are unwilling or unable to comply with the laws would relinquish their pets to shelters, causing an increase in the euthanasia crisis. Those who support the laws believe that statistical evidence makes it clear that there is a need for spay/neuter enforcement. They believe the long term benefits of regulated sterilization would outweigh the costs and eventually decrease the burden on shelters, animal control officers and taxpayers by a significant amount. Supporters of the laws believe a statewide solution is the only effective way to solve the problem and that it is necessary in order to protect public health and safety.\n
Because so many people adopt a pet only to relinquish it later, it is important for people to know all that it will entail before adopting a pet. It is crucial for individuals to make a commitment. It is unfair for the animal to be adopted only to return to a shelter. A dogs lifespan is 10-15 years while a cat&#x2019;s is 15-20 years. Adopters must also make sure that they have the finances to care for a pet. Companion animals need to be spay/neutered and kept up to date on their shots. Also it is important to make sure your lifestyle is fit for owning a pet. Lastly, make sure that you figure out which type of pet is right for you before adopting!\n
There are tons of nonprofit organizations throughout the U.S. working to help animals and fix this problem. The Humane society of the U.S. is the largest and wealthiest humane agency in the world. Other population organizations are Best Friends Animal Society which was found in the early 1980s and has since devoted their mission to &#x201C;bring about a time when there are no more homeless pets.&#x201D; Maddy&#x2019;s Fund is a family organization which was founded in 1999 in order to help fund the creation of a no-kill nation. Maddy&#x2019;s Fund continues to grow and make a difference. The Animal Rescue Site is an unique site which donates money for food and care to rescued animals through clicks on their website. The funding for this is paid by the site sponsors. 100% of sponsor advertising fees goes to shelters and rescues. The site also has a store which gives the profits to animals as well. Other organizations such as Spay and Save work to issue discount spay and neutering services by participating veterinarians. Spay and Save is a smaller and local organization.\n
Ways that you can help pet overpopulation and to give homeless animals a home would be to first make a lifelong commitment to your pet. If you adopt a pet or already have one be a responsible owner and keep your pet a lifelong home. If you plan on getting a new pet in the future, adopt from a shelter or a nonprofit animal rescue organization rather than from pet stores and breeders. When you have a pet be sure to always spay or neuter them. This is extremely important. Other ways to help are by volunteering at a local animal shelter, fostering an animal, donating to shelters and other nonprofit organizations and through educating others. Education is key to solving this problem.\n
describe in detail your application component\nmultiple slides\nuse pictures, videos, etc.\napproximately 8-15 minutes \n
Pet overpopulation in the U.S. leavesmillions of animals homeless and hasbecome a major problem that wasmanmade and must be solved by manin a humane manner.
PERSONAL RELEVANCEHTTP://WWW.PETANIM.COM/6706/JLBENTON/ HTTP://PAWSFORAMINUTE.COM/_BLOG/BLOG/TAG/ ADOPT-PET-HOLIDAYS/ PAWS_FOR_A_MINUTE_RADIO_TIP/PAGE/2/
The perfect companion never hasFewer than four feet.... Save a life, HTTP://COMMONS.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKI/ FILE:GREATPYRENEES-970.JPG adopt a pet.
HISTORY 1866- First SPCA was founded by Henry Bergh 1879 - The ﬁrst National Companion Animal Organization was founded 1888- Bergh died and shelters changed their focus towards killing animals 1910- Almost every major city in the U.S. had a SPCA Winograd, Nathan J. Redemption. N.p.: Almaden Books, 2007. Print. HTTP://WWW.EXAMINER.COM/ANIMAL-SHELTERS-IN-SAN-FRANCISCO/HENRY-BERGH-LEADERSHIP-AWARD-PICTURE Winograd, Nathan J. Irreconcilable Differences: The Battle for the Heart andHTTP://MAPLES-CENTER.UFL.EDU/ORGANIZATIONS/ASPCA/ Soul of Americas Animal Shelters. N.p.: CreateSpace, 2009. Print.
HISTORY CONTINUED ... --Change in attitude, veterinarians, growth of the middle class, suburbanization 1971-Spay/neuter clinics were started 1994 - No-Kill was attempted 2001- Tompkins County became the ﬁrst No-Kill CommunityWinograd, Nathan J. Irreconcilable Differences: The Battle for the Heart and HTTP://WWW.DAILYPUPPY.COM/PUPPIES/RYDER-THE-BERNESE-MOUNTAIN-DOG_2009-06-21 HTTP://WARRIORCATSMAKEYOUROWNCLAN.WORDPRESS.COM/FALL-CLAN/ Soul of Americas Animal Shelters. N.p.: CreateSpace, 2009. Print. HTTP://WWW.HAPPYPAWSPETEXPO.COM/SPONSOR_LIST.HTMLWinograd, Nathan J. Redemption. N.p.: Almaden Books, 2007. Print.
HTTP://WWW.SPCAWAKE.ORG/SITE/PAGESERVER?PAGENAME=CINCOMEOW 8 MILLION ANIMALS ARE TAKEN IN BY SHELTERS EACH YEAR 4 MILLION ANIMALS ARE EUTHANIZED BECAUSE HOMES ARE NOT FOUND SHELTER EUTHANASIA IS THE LEADING CAUSE OF DEATH FOR CATS AND DOGS"Protecting Animals." American Humane Association. Ed. Maddies Fund and National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. Convio, 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.americanhumane.org>. HTTP://WWW.LIFE-WITH-CONFIDENCE.COM/DEALING-WITH-DISAPPOINTMENT.HTML
A PROBLEM... Financially Dog bites Car accidents involving dogs and cats HTTP://WWW.GOOGLE.COM/IMGRES?IMGURL=HTTP://FARM1.STATIC.FLICKR.COM/112/265254657_9A4EAD4497.JPG1 Rabid dogs, infections Innocent animals are being killed HTTP://WWW.CASTLEPOINT.GOV.UK/MAIN.CFM?MENUID=11416 Frank, Joshua. "An Interactive Model of Human and Companion Animal Dynamics: The Ecology and Economics of Dog Overpopulation and the Human Costs of Addressing the Problem." Human Ecology 32.1 (2004): 107-130. JSTOR. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/4603504>.
a us es C Biology Commercial Breeding and Pet Stores• Companion animal overpopulation (not cited) http://dogdays.grouchypuppy.com/
us es • Lost and Abandoned Animals Ca ed co nt inu • Social attitudes • Failure to spay/neuter pets http://www.flickr.com/photos/28902261@N00/1285777504http://ventenzinchogkyi.com/animal-rescue/dharamsala-animal-rescue/
PUPPY MILLS STOP THE CRUELTY HTTP://ANDYFRONCIONI.COM/IRONJENNY/ABOUT-PUPPY-MILLS/ Pet Overpopulation. The Humane Society of the United States, 2011. Web. Feb. 2011. <http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/>.
FERAL CATS Clipped Ear HTTP://JUDY.KINNEYS.NET/ HTTP://ROCKEWARREN.COM/RICKY%20BIRTHDAY%20-%202006/ MARCH%2010%20-%20FERALCATS.HTM Winograd, Nathan J. Redemption. N.p.: Almaden Books, 2007. Print.HTTP://LATIMESBLOGS.LATIMES.COM/UNLEASHED/2010/12/UNIVERSITY-OF-NEBRASKA-STUDY-ON- FERAL-CATS-STIRS-CONTROVERSY.HTML Pet Overpopulation. The Humane Society of the United States, 2011. Web. Feb. HTTP://WWW.HELLOLOUISVILLE.COM/ARTICLES/BUSINESS/7087/ 2011. <http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/>. ALLEY_CAT_ADVOCATES_OFFERS_SOLUTION_TO_FERAL_CAT_CRISIS.CFM
ER HTTP://JOSEPHLCOOKE.BLOGSPOT.COM/2010/11/BOY-AND-HIS-DOG.HTML SM AT T NI M ALA Animals ha ve feelings too! s both human benef icial to ically! P ets are ally and phys mentBekoff, Marc. The Emotional Lives of Animals. Comp. Jane Goodall. Novato: New World Library, 2007. Print. HTTP://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/DALAIWMN/5411147419/
SOLUTIONS ADOPT FROM SHELTERS SPAY/NEUTER YOUR PET! MAKE A LIFELONG COMMITMENT Winograd, Nathan J. Redemption. N.p.: Almaden Books, 2007. Print. HTTP://FUNDRAISING4PETS.COM/CATEGORIES/CAR-MAGNETS/CIRCLES/HTTP://WWW.STICKERSHOPPE.COM/MM5/MERCHANT.MVC?SCREEN=PROD&STORE_CODE=SS&PRODUCT_CODE=SPAY-NEUTER-BLUE&CATEGORY_CODE=ANIMAL-SPAY-NEUTER
CONTROVERSY BEHIND MANDATORY SPAY/NEUTER LAWS OPPOSE SUPPORT LAWS WOULD CAUSE MORE LONGTERM BENEFITS OF A PROBLEMS THAN SOLUTIONS REGULATED STERILIZATION PROGRAM WOULD OUTWEIGH THE IT IS NOT GOVERNMENTS PLACE TO COSTS BECOME INVOLVED A STATEWIDE SOLUTION IS THE BREEDERS WILL NO LONGER BE ONLY EFFECTIVE SOLUTION ABLE TO COMPETE IN COMPETITIONS NECESSARY TO PROTECT PUBLIC HEALTH AND SAFETY THE LAW WOULD ACTUALLY INCREASE EUTHANASIA T T "Protecting Animals." American Humane Association. Ed. Maddies Fund andHTTP://FASTPUPDOGTRAINING.BLOGSPOT.COM/2010/09/ SAVE-MONEY-AND-EXTEND-LIFE-OF-YOUR-DOG.HTML National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. Convio, 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.americanhumane.org>.
PRECAUTIONS FOR ADOPTING A PET Make a commitment Make sure you are financially able Have the right time and lifestyle"Protecting Animals." American Humane Association. Ed. Maddies Fund and National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. Convio, 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.americanhumane.org>. HTTP://ADOPTPET.INFO/ADOPT-PET-MONTREAL-2
ORGANIZATIONS The Humane Society of the United States Best Friends Animal Society Maddy’s Fund The Animal Rescue Site Spay and SaveHTTP://WWW.SPAYANDSAVE.ORG/HTTP://WWW.THEANIMALRESCUESITE.COM/HTTP://WWW.MADDIESFUND.ORGHTTP://WWW.BESTFRIENDS.ORG/HTTP://WWW.HUMANESOCIETY.ORG/
Ways make a lifetime commitment to your pet to Volunteerhelp adopt your pet from shelters or nonproﬁt rescue groups Education others! Always spay/neuter your pet! Foster an animal Donate "Protecting Animals." American Humane Association. Ed. Maddies Fund and National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. Convio, 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.americanhumane.org>. http://www.stevevoght.com/mt/mt-search.cgi?blog_id=3&tag=Fosters&limit=20
APPLICATIONVOLUNTEERED AT MAIN LINE ANIMAL RESCUE INCHESTER SPRINGS, PA1. ATTENDED A ORIENTATION/MEET AND GREET2. ONE-ON-ONE TRAINING WITH THE DOGS AND IN THECAT ROOM3. BEGAN VOLUNTEERING
MAIN LINE ANIMAL RESCUENO KILL SHELTERENCLOSED FIELD FOR THE DOGS TO RUN AROUND INOUTDOOR ENCLOSED AREA FOR THE CATS
CLASS ACTIVITY1. I will bring in a couple ﬂeece blankets. I will have the class write on the blankets with market and decorate them. I will thendonate the blankets to Main Line Animal Rescue for the animals to use.2. I will have the class make awareness posters. They can make posters about adopting shelter pets or about Spay/Neuteringyour pet. Awareness is a big part of saving homeless pets.3. I will have the class make homemade cat toys to donate to Main Line Animal Rescue. The shelter has a lot of cats wholove to play. The toys will be made with cut up paper towel rolls. Two bells will be put into each paper towel roll and thenthe ends will be taped closed. The class can also decorate the outside of the paper towel roll if they wish.4. I will have each student in the class decorate a cat or dog food bowl. I will then donate the bowls to Main Line AnimalRescue. Main Line is always looking for different donations.
“SOMETIMES IT FALLS UPON A GENERATION TO BEGREAT. YOU CAN BE THAT GREAT GENERATION” --NELSON MANDELA (2005)
WORK CITEDBekoff, Marc. The Emotional Lives of Animals. Comp. Jane Goodall. Novato: New World Library, 2007. Print.Frank, Joshua. “An Interactive Model of Human and Companion Animal Dynamics: The Ecology and Economics of Dog Overpopulation and the Human Costs of Addressing the Problem.” Human Ecology 32.1 (2004): 107-130. JSTOR. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/4603504>.Geller, Scott E, and Angela K Fournier. “BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF COMPANION-ANIMAL OVERPOPULATION: A CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE PROBLEM AND SUGGESTIONS FOR INTERVENTION.” Behavior and Social Issues (2004): 51-68. PDF file.Pet Overpopulation. The Humane Society of the United States, 2011. Web. Feb. 2011. <http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/>.“Protecting Animals.” American Humane Association. Ed. Maddie’s Fund and National Council on Pet Population Study and Policy. Convio, 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2010. <http://www.americanhumane.org>.Winograd, Nathan J. Irreconcilable Differences: The Battle for the Heart and Soul of America’s Animal Shelters. N.p.: CreateSpace, 2009. Print.Winograd, Nathan J. Redemption. N.p.: Almaden Books, 2007. Print.