Poison identification1. The initial history should include theidentification of the product ingested(containers or bottles should be brought).2. Physical examination will often revealsupporting evidence for a particularingestion.
Poison identification3. When the nature of the substanceingested is unknown, the list of commonsymptoms or signs are presented in table
Poison identification4. The specific substance causing apoisoning should be confirmed byqualitative analysis performed on blood orurine.Gastric fluid analysis will be of value ifdone within 2-3 hours of ingestion.
Gastrointestinal decontamination:B) Adsorbents: Activated charcoal forms a stablecomplex with the toxin, thuspreventing its absorption. It is not given before ipecac andis not effective against metals,alcohols, hydrocarbons, orcaustics. It is given in a dose of 1gm/kg inwater orally.
Gastrointestinal decontamination:C) Cathartics:• As magnesium citrate and sorbitol.• They hasten transit of gastrointestinalcontents, thus decreasing systemicabsorption of the toxin.
Elimination enhancement:1. Fluid and osmotic diuresis by intake ofhypertonic fluid.2. Diuretics,such as frusemide (2 mg/kg/dose) areused to increase urine output.
Elimination enhancement: 3. Ionized diuresis;excretion of acidic compounds, suchas salicylates and barbiturates, isenhanced by alkalinization of urinewhich is accomplished by IV sodiumbicarbonate.
Elimination enhancement: 4. Extracorporeal poison removal,such as by hemodialysis, peritonealdialysis and exchange transfusion.
AntidotesPoison Antidote dose-Isoniazide-Methemoglobinemia -LeadPyridoxine(B6)Methylineblue EDTA5 gm, IV 1-2 mg/kg, IV over10 min 250 mg/M2/dose,IM, every 4 hrs.
How can I protect my child?The most important and practical measure is to ensure toxic substances are completely out of reach in the first place. Make a thorough check of your house and garden, removing any harmful products and placing them in a securely locked cabinet.