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The Cell

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  • 1. The Cell
    • All Living things are composed of cells
    • All Cells have/contain the following:
    • Cell Membrane - Lipid Bilayer - Separates inside from outside
  • 2. Cytoplasm
    • Cytoplasm - everything but DNA/Nucleus
  • 3. Two Cell types
    •          Prokaryotic Cells
      • 1.       Primitive cells – include bacteria
      • 2.      No nucleus
      • 3.      No Membrane-bound organelles
      • 4.      Very Small 1-10 micrometers
      • 5.      Single Strand of Circular “naked” DNA
      • 6.      Contain Ribosomes
  • 4. Typical Prokaryotic Cell
  • 5. Eukaryotic Cells
    • Eukaryotic Cells
    • 1.       Contain a Nucleus which protects DNA / Chromosomes
    • 2.      Much larger than prokaryotic cells
    • 3.      Have many different types of Membrane bound organelles - compartmentalization = efficiency
  • 6. Eukaryotic Cells Animal Eukaryotic Cell Plant Eukaryotic Cell
  • 7. Organelles
    • Membrane-Bound organelles only found in Eukaryotes
    • Localize Chemical Reactions making the cell far more efficient
  • 8. Major Organelles of the Eukaryotic Cell
    • The Nucleus
    • “ eukaryotic” means “true nucleus”
      • Contains & protects the cell’s DNA
      • Helps coordinate the division of cells
    • Surrounded by a Nuclear Envelope
    • Envelope is double layered with an Inner & Outer membrane
      • Has perforations called Nuclear Pores which allow large molecules to pass in/out of the nucleus
    • Contains a Nucleolus
      • Ribosomes are made in this region
    • Contains DNA packaged in structures called chromosomes
    Chromosomes
  • 9. Mitochondria
    • Serves as the “powerhouse of the cell” by generating chemical energy
      • Has it’s own DNA*
      • Can divide on its own*
  • 10. Chloroplasts (Plant Cell Only)
    • Is the “cell’s farm” - meaning food is generated here.
    • Does this by photosynthesis - the conversion of CO 2 , H 2 O and sunlight into sugar
    • Contain Chlorophyll - a green pigment - which does this
    • Has it’s own DNA*
    • Can divide on its own*
  • 11. Ribosomes
    • Are NOT membrane-bound & also exist in prokaryotes
    • Are used to manufacture proteins
    • Granular in appearance
    • Often found on “rough” endoplasmic reticulum *
  • 12. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Are folds of membranes used to package & modify proteins made by ribosomes. They also make lipids
    • 2 types
      • “ Rough ” - which is usually near nucleus and covered with ribosomes giving it its “rough” appearance. (Finishes proteins)
      • “ Smooth ” - which is usually away from the nucleus (produce lipids)
  • 13. Examples of Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER Rough ER
  • 14. Golgi Bodies
    • Are the post offices of the cell
    • Modify (address) proteins & lipids and send them in packages ( vessicles ) throughout (or out of) the cell.
  • 15. Lysosomes
    • Small Vessicles which serve to digest particles and clean-up cells
    • Contain Lysozyme – a powerful digestive enzyme
    • Digests food particles
    • Destroys worn-out organelles
    • Self-Destructs worn-out cells
  • 16. Centrioles (Animal Cell Only)
    • Serve as construction/organization points for cellular microtubules
    • Organize and transfer chromosomes and other organelles during Meiosis & Mitosis
    • Occur in some prokaryotes, protists & animals. Do not occur with fungi and plants
    • Tube like structures usually at right angles to each other.
    • Some animals have centriole-like structures at the base of flagella called basal bodies .
  • 17. Tonoplast (water vacuole) (plant cells only)
    • Large H 2 O / Lipid / waste storage tank
    • Provides pressure ( Turgor pressure ) to maintain cell structure
  • 18. Cell Wall
    • Provides support / protection for plant cell
    • Two layers of cell wall
      • Primary Cell Wall – Outer – Cellulose only
      • Secondary Cell Wall – Inner – Cellulose & Lignin
    • Cell membrane is innermost layer
  • 19. Cytoskeleton
    • Network of fibers which help organize the internal arrangement within cells.
    • Three basic types of fibers compose cytoskeleton:
      • Actin Filaments
        • Thinnest fibers ~7nM
        • Formed from protein Actin
      • Microtubules
        • Largest component of cytoskeleton ~25 nM
        • Formed from protein Tubulin
      • Intermediate filaments
        • Intermediate in size and can vary
        • Form from several proteins inluding vimentin & keratin