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The Cell
 

The Cell

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    The Cell The Cell Presentation Transcript

    • The Cell
      • All Living things are composed of cells
      • All Cells have/contain the following:
      • Cell Membrane - Lipid Bilayer - Separates inside from outside
    • Cytoplasm
      • Cytoplasm - everything but DNA/Nucleus
    • Two Cell types
      •          Prokaryotic Cells
        • 1.       Primitive cells – include bacteria
        • 2.      No nucleus
        • 3.      No Membrane-bound organelles
        • 4.      Very Small 1-10 micrometers
        • 5.      Single Strand of Circular “naked” DNA
        • 6.      Contain Ribosomes
    • Typical Prokaryotic Cell
    • Eukaryotic Cells
      • Eukaryotic Cells
      • 1.       Contain a Nucleus which protects DNA / Chromosomes
      • 2.      Much larger than prokaryotic cells
      • 3.      Have many different types of Membrane bound organelles - compartmentalization = efficiency
    • Eukaryotic Cells Animal Eukaryotic Cell Plant Eukaryotic Cell
    • Organelles
      • Membrane-Bound organelles only found in Eukaryotes
      • Localize Chemical Reactions making the cell far more efficient
    • Major Organelles of the Eukaryotic Cell
      • The Nucleus
      • “ eukaryotic” means “true nucleus”
        • Contains & protects the cell’s DNA
        • Helps coordinate the division of cells
      • Surrounded by a Nuclear Envelope
      • Envelope is double layered with an Inner & Outer membrane
        • Has perforations called Nuclear Pores which allow large molecules to pass in/out of the nucleus
      • Contains a Nucleolus
        • Ribosomes are made in this region
      • Contains DNA packaged in structures called chromosomes
      Chromosomes
    • Mitochondria
      • Serves as the “powerhouse of the cell” by generating chemical energy
        • Has it’s own DNA*
        • Can divide on its own*
    • Chloroplasts (Plant Cell Only)
      • Is the “cell’s farm” - meaning food is generated here.
      • Does this by photosynthesis - the conversion of CO 2 , H 2 O and sunlight into sugar
      • Contain Chlorophyll - a green pigment - which does this
      • Has it’s own DNA*
      • Can divide on its own*
    • Ribosomes
      • Are NOT membrane-bound & also exist in prokaryotes
      • Are used to manufacture proteins
      • Granular in appearance
      • Often found on “rough” endoplasmic reticulum *
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Are folds of membranes used to package & modify proteins made by ribosomes. They also make lipids
      • 2 types
        • “ Rough ” - which is usually near nucleus and covered with ribosomes giving it its “rough” appearance. (Finishes proteins)
        • “ Smooth ” - which is usually away from the nucleus (produce lipids)
    • Examples of Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth ER Rough ER
    • Golgi Bodies
      • Are the post offices of the cell
      • Modify (address) proteins & lipids and send them in packages ( vessicles ) throughout (or out of) the cell.
    • Lysosomes
      • Small Vessicles which serve to digest particles and clean-up cells
      • Contain Lysozyme – a powerful digestive enzyme
      • Digests food particles
      • Destroys worn-out organelles
      • Self-Destructs worn-out cells
    • Centrioles (Animal Cell Only)
      • Serve as construction/organization points for cellular microtubules
      • Organize and transfer chromosomes and other organelles during Meiosis & Mitosis
      • Occur in some prokaryotes, protists & animals. Do not occur with fungi and plants
      • Tube like structures usually at right angles to each other.
      • Some animals have centriole-like structures at the base of flagella called basal bodies .
    • Tonoplast (water vacuole) (plant cells only)
      • Large H 2 O / Lipid / waste storage tank
      • Provides pressure ( Turgor pressure ) to maintain cell structure
    • Cell Wall
      • Provides support / protection for plant cell
      • Two layers of cell wall
        • Primary Cell Wall – Outer – Cellulose only
        • Secondary Cell Wall – Inner – Cellulose & Lignin
      • Cell membrane is innermost layer
    • Cytoskeleton
      • Network of fibers which help organize the internal arrangement within cells.
      • Three basic types of fibers compose cytoskeleton:
        • Actin Filaments
          • Thinnest fibers ~7nM
          • Formed from protein Actin
        • Microtubules
          • Largest component of cytoskeleton ~25 nM
          • Formed from protein Tubulin
        • Intermediate filaments
          • Intermediate in size and can vary
          • Form from several proteins inluding vimentin & keratin