Organization Of The Cell Ch04 Lecture


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Organization Of The Cell Ch04 Lecture

  1. 1. Organization of the Cell
  2. 2. <ul><li>Cell theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells are the basic living units of organization and function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All cells come from other cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work of Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow contributed to this theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each cell is a microcosm of life </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Biological size and cell diversity </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Cell surface area-to-volume ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane must be large enough relative to cell volume to regulate passage of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell size and shape related to function </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Cell surface area-to-volume ratio </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light microscope, referred to as compound microscope, used by most students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two features determine how clearly an object is viewed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light microscope has 500 times more resolution than human eye </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Special optical mechanisms for light microscopes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bright-field microscopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase contrast microscopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differential-interference-contrast microscopy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorescence microscope, including confocal fluorescence microscope </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Electron microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in the 1950s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows study of the ultrastructure of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,000 times more resolution than human eye </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Types of electron microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission electron microscope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning electron microscope </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Comparing light and electron microscopy </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Cell fractionation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to determine function of organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells broken apart and the resulting cell extract spun in a centrifuge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrifugal force separates extract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pellet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supernatant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Cell fractionation </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Prokaryotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria and archaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA not enclosed in a nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All other known organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly organized membrane-enclosed organelles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Functions of cell membranes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide cell into compartments, allowing for specialized activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interacting membranes form endomembrane system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicles transport materials between compartments </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Diagram of a plant cell </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Diagram of an animal cell </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The cell nucleus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounded by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Double membrane perforated with nuclear pores </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA forms chromatin, which is organized into chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RNA synthesis and ribosome assembly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>The cell nucleus </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Network of folded internal membranes in the cytosol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site of lipid synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site of detoxifying enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes manufacture proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins may be moved into the ER lumen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Golgi complex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cisternae that process, sort, and modify proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In animal cells, Golgi complex also manufactures lysosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glycoproteins transported to the cis face </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi modifies carbohydrates and lipids and packages into vesicles </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Golgi complex </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Lysosomes break down worn-out cell structures, bacteria, and other substances </li></ul><ul><li>Peroxisomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in lipid metabolism and detoxification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain enzymes that produce and degrade hydrogen peroxide </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sites of aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles enclosed by a double membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place important role in apoptosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cristae and matrix contain enzymes for aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients broken down and energy packaged in ATP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide and water by-products </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastids that carry out photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner membrane of chloroplast encloses the stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During photosynthesis, chlorophyll traps light energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy converted to chemical energy in ATP </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Chloroplast </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Cellular respiration and photosynthesis </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal framework made of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate filaments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides structural support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved with transport of materials in the cell </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>The Cytoskeleton </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Cilia and flagella </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, movable structures that project from cell surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function in movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubles anchored in cell by basal body </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Structure of cilia </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Glycocalyx, cell coat formed by polysaccarides extending from plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Many animal cells also surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM) </li></ul><ul><li>Most bacteria, fungi, and plant cell walls made of carbohydrates </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Extracellular matrix </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Plant cell walls </li></ul>