Nutrition Nutrition- the process in which animals consume and utilize food. Feed efficiency= “rate of gain” The feed must have proper nutrients to support life processes of an animal. Diet must provide balanced ration.
Feed effifiency Livestock producers- watch nutrition to decrease the # of days until market. Companion Animal Owners- limit animal feed in order to maintain animal health and contentment. Balanced Ration- the total amount of feed an animal gets in 24 hour period.
6 Essential Nutrients Needed to insure life Provide lots of energy Without them, problems can occur body mass, lactation, maturity time
water Dissolves nutrients that animals eat, controls body temp., carries nutrients throughout the body. Notable facts: younger animals have 80% water and 40%-80% maturity animals. You give them water and should be fresh and clean
Carbohydrates Provides energy, which powers muscles in the animal. Produces body heat and provide fat if not burned. Made of starches, sugars, cellulose Simple carbs- easily digested in nitrogen free extract. Complex- fibers more difficult to digest 75% carbs Can be obtained from cane molasses, ground corn, wheat middlings and dehydrated alfalfa meal.
Fats Provide body with heat and energy Easily digestable Contains 1-5% in feeds Come from animal and vegetable sources Brewer’s dried grains, corn gluten meal, and distillers dried grains.
Proteins Supply material to build body tissues Essential for fetal development Also essential for tissue growth Made of amino acids Ligaments, muscles, organs, skin and horns are all made partially of protein It can be obtained by soybean oil meal, linseed meal, cottonseed meal and meat and bone meal.
Minerals Minerals aid in growth Also aid in the body processes Inorganic materials Macro minerals are needed in large amounts Micro minerals are needed in small amounts Minerals are usually mixed in with feeds as supplements.
Vitamins Provide material for growth of bones, teeth and tissue. Regulate chemical process Aid in muscular activity Help repair tissue Two groups of vitamins: Trace and Major Are thrown in to feeds as supplements
5 Different Diets Maintenance Growth Reproduction Lactation Work
Maintenance Maintaining life of the animal Consist of Protein, minerals, vitamins, and water, certain fatty acids. All of these animals need it
Growth Nutrients given for growth after maintenance. Increases size of muscles and organs Consist of high protein and vitamins/minerals Use for weight gaining animals
Reproduction Nutrients given so an animal can reproduce effetely and to breeding animals Diet consist of high in protein and extra minerals/vitamins Use for mother, pigs, ex……..
Lactation To produce milk as a product Diet consist of vitamins/minerals, protein and fats/calcium/ phosphorus Use for cows, swine, sheep, goats
Work When animals are used to do work Diets consist of extra carbs, fats and extra protein, extra salt Use for horses, mules
Pearson’s Square Steps to Use 1. Draw a square 2.Label feeds and crude protein percentages on the left corners and feeds on right corner. 3.Subtract the smaller number from the larger along the diagonal lines 4.Divide the parts of feed by the total parts to % of each feed in the ratio 5.Use total lbs need to determine lbs of each feed need. 6.Check to make sure protein needs are met.
Chicken Experiment We preformed a feed experiment with chickens. We feed chickens 4 different types of feed to see which one had the highest rate of gain. The feed tags of each feed were analyzed and we made a hypothesis on which feed we believe would have the most rate of gain. The feed with the most protein had the highest rate of gain.