Executive summary   report of the fifty years of independence of mainland tanzania - 28 november, 2011
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Executive summary   report of the fifty years of independence of mainland tanzania - 28 november, 2011 Executive summary report of the fifty years of independence of mainland tanzania - 28 november, 2011 Document Transcript

  • iTHE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIATHE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE REPORTON THE FIFTY YEARS OF INDEPENDENCE OFTANZANIA MAINLAND1961-2011December, 2011
  • iiTHE FLAG OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
  • iiiTHE MAP OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
  • ivH.E DR. JAKAYA MRISHO KIKWETETHE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
  • vH.E. DR. MOHAMMED GHARIB BILALTHE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
  • viR.T. HON. MIZENGO KAYANZA PETER PINDA (MP)THE PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
  • viiTable of ContentsPREFACE .......................................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined. INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................vi CHAPTER ONE...............................................................................................................................1 Historical Background Up To 1961 ...................................................................................................1 CHAPTER TWO..............................................................................................................................3 Politics, Leadership And Legal Framework.......................................................................................3 CHAPTER THREE .......................................................................................................................11 Economic Development ...................................................................................................................11 CHAPTER FOUR ..........................................................................................................................17 Social Services .................................................................................................................................17 CHAPTER FIVE............................................................................................................................22 Culture..............................................................................................................................................22 CHAPTER SIX...............................................................................................................................28 Achievements, Challenges and the Way Forward............................................................................28 Achievements ................................................................................................................................ 28 Challenges .................................................................................................................................... 30 Way Forward ................................................................................................................................ 31 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 32 
  • iPREFACEOn 9 December 2011, Tanzania Mainland commemorates fifty years of herindependence. We thank the Almighty God for the mercy and blessings bestowed onour country and her people during the first fifty years of independence. By His grace,we have managed to defend our freedom and to maintain peace and tranquility.During these fifty years, the efforts of the people of Tanzania and their leaders, haveyielded positive results in the economy, politics, leadership, legal and social servicesand culture. The achievements made are also the outcome of the abundant naturalresources our country is endowed with both on and under the ground and a widevariety of attractions which we prudently utilised for the benefit of our Nation.In the past fifty years of independence, Tanzanians have dared to perform manyactivities for the development of our country. First and foremost was the successfulbut difficult struggle for independence from colonialism. We also eliminated thecolonial legacies in the political, economic, social and cultural systems anddiscontinued the traditional chiefdoms for the purpose of uniting all ethnic groups intoa single nation. In 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar united and became The UnitedRepublic of Tanzania thereby realising the concept of African unity. In addition, theadoption of the Arusha Declaration in 1967, whose aim was to place the ownership ofthe major means of production under the control of the people and to build anegalitarian and self reliant society, was among the difficult but necessary decisionsunderlying the principles of socialism and self reliance.With regard to our relations with foreign countries, as a nation, we decided to follow apolicy of non-alignment despite pressure from the big and powerful nations of theEast and the West. With great valour, we have managed to defend our independence,protect our borders against invasion, and insisted on making our own decisions.During the past fifty years of independence, Tanzania Mainland has succeeded inbuilding the basis for a strong, stable and sustainable economy. During the period1985-2011, the economy has been growing by an average of 5 percent per annum andGovernment revenue collection has increased significantly. Economic growth has
  • iibeen the result of positive contributions of manufacturing, mining, tourism,agriculture, land and infrastructure sectors. The growth of the economy and increasein revenue collection has enabled the Government to expand and improve the qualityof social services such as education, health, human settlement and water which arenow available to most people.In addition, there has been great improvements in the infrastructure sector, particularlytransportation, compared to the situation before independence. We have managed toconstruct all weather roads connecting all the regions in the country, expand therailway network including the construction of the Uhuru Railway (TAZARA), andimprove our airports and harbours. Communications has been made easy throughvoicemail, internet and cellphones.The systems which have been established and the experience gained during the pastfifty years of independence provide us a strong foundation for bigger strides in theyears ahead. The Nation is proud of the successes we achieved and the measures takenin addressing the numerous challenges. These will serve as a useful reference point inour future struggles for development. Strategies will be devised to enable citizens toinvest in their own development, become more self reliant, and move the countrytowards middle income status.As we commemorate fifty years of independence for Tanzania Mainland, we areobliged to thank our leaders at all levels for their contribution to the achievementsattained. In a very special way, we acknowledge, and truly honour the Father of theNation, the late Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, for his distinguishedcontribution to the struggle for the independence of our country, for his outstandingleadership, and for laying a solid foundation for our Nation. We also remember andhonour the late Right Honourable Rashid Mfaume Kawawa for working hand in handwith Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere.I sincerely thank His Exellency Alhaji Ali Hassan Mwinyi, the second phasePresident, and His Exellency Benjamin William Mkapa, the third phase President, fortheir constructive efforts and patriotism in serving our Nation.In the same vain I earnestly thank all Tanzanians for their hard work and maintenanceof peace and solidarity, which have made a vital contribution to our country’s
  • iiidevelopment. We extend our gratitude to friendly countries and internationalorganizations for their cooperation and support. Our special thanks go to thosecountries and organizations that have consistently supported our development efforts.As we celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of our independence, it is time to reflect, lookforward, and formulate sound strategies for addressing the challenges ahead. As wasthe case during the past fifty years, the future of the Nation is in the hands of allcitizens, especially young women and men, who together constitute the future Nation.Tanzanians and their leaders will ensure that during the next fifty years, our Nationremains strong and united anchored by our national fundamental principles of respectfor human dignity, freedom, progress, equality, justice, independence, unity,nationalism and patriotism, peace and integrity. We intend to make increased use ofICT to accelerate our economic development, strengthen national defence andsecurity, enhance cultural development and defend the respect and dignity of theAfrican people.I take this opportunity to thank the Ministers, Regional Commissioners and all thosewho participated in the preparation of this report which, I believe, contains importanthistorical information about the first fifty years of our independence.Finally, I convey my best wishes to all Tanzanians during the celebrations of the fiftyyears of the independence of our country. I appeal to all of you to celebrate thisoccassion in true happiness, unity, peace and tranquility. Furthermore, I wish ourNation greater prosperity during the next fifty years of our independence.“INDEED, WE DARED, WE SUCCEEDED AND WE ARE FORGINGAHEAD”.GOD BLESS AFRICA, GOD BLESS TANZANIA.Dr. Jakaya Mrisho KikwetePresident of the United Republic of Tanzania
  • ivACKNOWLEDGEMENTSTanzania Mainland celebrates her fifty years of independence on 9thDecember, 2011.The Government has prepared a consolidated report derived from reports submitted byMinistries, Regions, Districts and various Institutions. This consolidated reporthighlights Tanzanian historical background, political, leadership the constitutionaland legal framework, economic development, social services, culture and nationalidentity. Furthermore, the report has underscored achievements and challenges as wellas the future prospects for the country.The preparation of this Report was not an easy task. The Nation recognizes thevaluable contributions from different stakeholders who, in one way or another, haveparticipated in making this historical milestone possible. Therefore, I take thisopportunity to thank and congratulate the chief executives at different levels of theGovernment and Institutions who participated in this demanding task, particularly thePermanent Secretaries, Regional Administrative Secretaries, Council Directors andHeads of different Institutions. My vote of thanks should also go to all PublicServants working in Government and those working in Public Institutions, whodiligently participated in preparing their reports which provided significant inputs forthe preparation of this national report.I sincerely convey my appreciation to members of the Committee which prepared thisNational Reports. The committee has managed, through their experience andprofessionalism, to consolidate the reports from different insititutions into onecomprehensive report. It is my expectation that this Report will serve as reference aswell as provide vision for all Tanzanians and future generations. I also strongly urgeemployees in the public service, private sector as well as civic organization workers ingeneral, to play their part by working efficiently and effectively so as to contribute tothe development and prosperity of our nation in the coming fifty years.We have Dared, we Succeeded and we are Forging Ahead.Phillemon L. LuhanjoCHIEF SECRETARY
  • viINTRODUCTIONDecember 9th, 2011 will be the 50thanniversary since Tanganyika, now TanzaniaMainland, attained independence. This part of Africa had been a home to variousindigenous societies since ancient times, but towards the end of the 19thcentury it wasinvaded and ruled by colonialists from Europe. The colonial rule, which lasted forseventy six years, destroyed the pre-existing political, economic and social systems ofthe colonised societies. The colonial state established new principles and systems thatwere oppressive, exploitative and discriminative. Colonialism also negatively affectedAfrican people’s cultures. Due to the misery they suffered under colonialism, thepeople of Tanzania Mainland fought for their rights through welfare associations,labour organisations, cooperative unions and political parties, and eventually regainedtheir independence in 1961.Principles and Aspirations in Nation-BuildingThe advent of independence opened up an opportunity for the leadership of thenascent nation, under the leadership of Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, toidentify and articulate appropriate fundamental principles and aspirations to guide thenation-building effort. These fundamental principles, which were widely disseminatedduring the early years of independence, included respect for human dignity,freedom, equality, human rights, development, nationalism and patriotism,unity, peace, self-reliance, and integrity. Concepts about these principles wereinitially conceived during the period of independence struggles, and some of themwere actually proclaimed in the constitution of the Tanganyika African NationalUnion (TANU), the Party that led the country to independence. In pursuing the task ofidentifying and articulating these principles, the founding leaders of the nation wereguided by awareness of the world’s situation at that time, the prevailing conditionsafter colonialism, as well as citizens’ expectations that emerged during the struggle for
  • viiindependence. Efforts to articulate and disseminate the nation’s fundamentalprinciples and aspirations continued throughout the first decade of independence.Implementation and Enhancement of the Nation’s PrinciplesThe first fifty years of Tanzania Mainland independence have been marked by effortsto implement and further strengthen the nation’s principles and aspirations as outlinedabove. This has been the responsibility and duty of the Government and citizensduring all the four post-independence phases of the nation’s central leadership. Aperiod of fifty years is long enough for a country to review its history, assess itsachievements and challenges since independence and reflect on its future directions.This exercise serves to document the nation-building efforts made so far, to educatethe current and future generations, to build hope and optimisim for a better future.Having realised the importance of this kind of documentation, the Government madearrangements for major sectors to report on the achievements made and the challengesencountered in the efforts to bring about development in accordance with the nation’sprinciples. These reports were prepared at ministerial and regional levels. A specialcommittee of experts appointed by Government then used the reports, together withinformation from other sources, to prepare a consolidated national report as herebypresented.Structure of the ReportThis report is divided into six chapters. The first chapter is about the country’senvironment and history up to 1961. The chapter outlines the unique environmentalfeatures of the country and highlights the major administrative, economic and socialtransformations undergone from ancient times to 1961, when it gained independence.Chapter Two presents the nation’s fundamental principles and aspirations, symbols,political stature, leadership, administration, and laws. It briefly elaborates on thenation’s fundamental principles as mentioned above and shows how they link andinterrelate with each other. The nation’s main symbols, that is, the flag, the coat of
  • viiiarms, the Independence Torch and the national anthem are briefly explained. Thechapter also elaborates on the development efforts made in the areas of politicalrelations, leadership and administration during the three major epochs of the country’spost independence history, namely the Nation Building period (1961-1966), the periodof Socialism and Self-Reliance (1967-1985) and the epoch of neo-liberal reforms(1985-2011). The chapter ends with a section highlighting the achievements made andchallenges encountered during the successive periods.Chapter Three concerns issues on economic development and provides detailedelaborations on the role played by this sector in the implementation of the nation’sprinciples and aspirations. The chapter highlights the development efforts made,through self-reliance, to combat ignorance, disease and poverty and improve people’slivelihood. In explaining these efforts, the chapter elaborates on the various policyinnovations and development plans adopted, the achievements made in theirimplementation during the first fifty years of independence and the downturnsexperienced.Chapter Four covers social services and provides details of measures taken by theGovernment in collaboration with the people, in providing and enhancing services inthe fields of education, healthcare, water supply and human settlements and housing.Achievements attained and challenges encountered have also been highlighted.Chapter Five is about the efforts undertaken since independence to sustain andpromote Tanzania’s culture. The chapter explains the meaning and major pillars ofTanzania’s culture, which include its history, the Swahili Language, arts, customs andtraditions, sports and games, leisure and entertainment and the press. It also explainsthe role played by culture in the struggle for liberation.Chapter Six concludes the report with an overview of the achievements gained byTanzanians since independence in the implementation of the nation’s fundamentalprinciples and aspirations in all the spheres of national development. The chapter also
  • ixoutlines the challenges encountered along the way and the measures taken to addressthem. The final section of the chapter projects the nation’s development vision for thenext fifty years.
  • 1CHAPTER ONEHISTORICAL BACKGROUND UP TO 1961Tanzania Mainland has been shaped by natural forces which formed her physicalfeatures, a colonial history which defined her borders a well as deliberate effortstowards nation building by the citizens and their leaders since attaining independencein 1961. This country, which is on the east coast of the African continent, is locatedjust south of the equator bordering the Indian ocean to the east, while on its mainland ,it shares a border with Zambia, Mozambique, Malawi, The democratic Republic ofCongo, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and Kenya.Tanzania Mainland has been a hub for human settlement for many centuries. Itsphysical features include grasslands, mountains and a diversity of lowlands. It isfurther endowed with unique and world renowned features, such as Lake Tanganyika,which is the longest lake in the world and second deepest in the world, MountKilimanjaro which is the highest stand- alone mountain in the world and theNgorongoro crater which is one of the world wonders. The Serengeti plains whichhold a large number of wildlife, is believed to be the origin of humankind. TanzaniaMainland has abundant natural resources including fertile land, minerals and preciousstone, a variety of wildlife and unique marine life.
  • 2Mount KilimanjaroCommunities which inhabited Tanzania Mainland before 1961 had different types ofeconomic, governance and cultural systems. These systems changed overtime as aresult of internal forces as well as integration with people from different parts of theworld. During the 19thcentury, this part was invaded by colonialists, beginning withthe Germans and later the British.Colonial rule, which lasted for 76 years, usurped the power to govern from the people,subjecting them to an oppressive political system and developed an exploitativeeconomic system. The colonial regime, in collaboration with missionaries, establishedsuch social services as education and health. However, these services were of poorquality and were provided on a discriminatory basis. Consequent to all this, when thecountry attained its independence, it inherited a weak economy, limited anddiscriminatory social services and very few professionals to manage key developmentsectors.
  • 3CHAPTER TWOPOLITICS, LEADERSHIPAND LEGAL FRAMEWORKThe second chapter focuses on the nation’s fundamental principles and identity as wellas politics, leadership and legal systems under which Tanzania Mainland has operatedin its fifty years of independence. Since attaining independence in 1961, TanzaniaMainland, later the United Republic of Tanzania has adhered to specific fundamentalpolitical philosophies and principles which have shaped the country’s leadershipshipstyle, legal structures and public policies. The nation’s fundamental principles arehuman dignity, freedom, progress, human equality, justice, independence, unity,patriotism and nationalism, peace and ethical conduct.These principles are inseparably intertwined and they are inextricably linked.Tanzania Mainland has made deliberate efforts to create a political, leadership andlegal systems which empowers the citizenry to determine their own destiny,safeguards the rule of law, human rights and justice; and adheres to the principles ofdemocracy and ethical conduct. Moreover, the system has articulated and defined aforeign policy that commensurates with the nation’s fundamental principles ofnational sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence.In addition, specific measures have been undertaken to ensure that Tanzania Mainlandacquires its own identity, among the community of nations, symbolised by thenational flag, national emblem, national anthem and the Uhuru torch.
  • 4Lieutenant Alexander Nyirenda hoisting the National Flag and placing theUhuru Torch on the peak of Mount Kilimanjaro on 9thDecember 1961.The main challenges encountered in the political, leadership and legal spheres sinceindependence have been categorised under three major phases, namely the NationBuilding period, (1961-1966); Ujamaa and Self Reliance (1967-1985) andLiberalization phase (1986-2011). The salient challenges were, to build One Nationout of 120 ethnic goups, to sustain national fundumental principles, to establishinggovernance structures and systems and to formulate policies to govern foreign affairsand international cooperation.
  • 5During the Nation Building period, the major thrust was on the establishment of apolitical system which embraced the principles of equality and human dignity;eliminating all forms of discrimination and tribalism and establishing one a one partydemocracy. In the spirit of Pan-Africanism and African unity, the Republic ofTanganyika and the People’s Republic of Zanzibar united to establish the UnitedRepublic of Tanzania. Furthermore, development of a national framework to governforeign relations and international cooperation was emphasized.Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere and Sheikh Abeid A. Karume signing the legalinstruments for the Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on 26th April 1964.In the leadership and legal spheres, the government deliberately abolished the systemof traditional rulers (chiefs) in order to pave way for nation building. Similarly, theAfricanization policy was implemented to transform a colonial type civil service into anational civil service that was patriotic and committed to run the governmentmachinery diligently. The government pursued specific policies aimed at attainingself-sufficiency in human resource requirements in the civil service. Furthermore,administrative, defense and security organs which had a national character wereestablished. The administrative machinery as well as legislative and legal systemsunderwent reforms in order to redefine their roles and functions, behaviour andattitude of public servants, in line with a different working environment
  • 6In the era of Socialism and Self-Reliance, Tanzania resolved to build a socialistsociety on the basis of the principles of African socialism and existing conditions inthe country. The Arusha Declaration which was promulgated in 1967 clearly definedthe country’s ideology from which the vision and road map were derived. In thisperiod, the ruling party, TANU, was strengthened and assumed supremacy over theorgans of state. It meant that roles and responsility undertaken by government wereunder the auspices of the Party. On different occasions, TANU issued Guidelines todirect political affairs and state functions. In 1977 TANU and ASP merged to formone political party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), which was a landmark event in thepolitical history of Tanzania Mainland.In 1972, the country pursued a policy of “decentralization” where regional authorities,on behalf of central government, administered and managed development activities inthe region. It was asumed that, people at grassroot level will participate in theirdevelopment activities. For that reason, local government authorities were abolished.However, the local government system was re-introduced again in 1982 to facilitatepeoples’ participation in development. A permanent Constitution of the UnitedRepublic of Tanzania was enacted in 1977 and it was amended in 1984 to include aclause on basic human rights and also limited the tenure of the Presidency to twoterms of five years each. Unfortunately, during this period, specifically from 1978 to1979, Tanzania was forced into a war with Uganda following the invasion andoccupation of part of its territory by the Ugandan forces led by Dictator Idd AminDada. The Tanzania Peoples Defense Forces (TPDF) in collaboration with thecitizens fought gallantly and won the war.The major and critical political, economic and social transformations occurred duringthe period of Liberalism. There was a shift from state controlled economy to market-driven economy and a change from one party system to multiparty political system.The electoral system was reformed to make it more accessible and transparent.Enabling institutional and legal frameworks were put in place to facilitate the
  • 7implementation of the new economic model. By 2011, 18 political parties had beenfully registered and had participated in several elections, including presidential andparliamentary elections. CCM won all Presidential elections held since 1995. Manychanges have taken place in politics and administration. The number of non-stateinstitutions, including the civil society organizations, trade unions and cooperativeunions, has increased. Similarly, an enabling environment to facilitate their smoothfunctioning and autonomy has been created. The structure of government waschanged to facilitate the creation of Executive Agencies and by 2011 there were 33established executive agencies. The number of women in leadership positions hassignificantly increased from 1,495 (30.6 percent) in 2005 to 2340 (35.9 percent) in2011.In addition, a conducive environment has been created to encourage private sectorparticipation in development. Some parastatals have been privatized; remunerationfor public service employees has improved, and ethical conduct in public servicedelivery has been promoted and enforced. The structure of regional administration hasbeen improved, including the expansion of regions from 10 in 1961 to 21 in 2011 andlocal government councils have increased from 67 in 1961 to 133 in 2011. In addition,the new regional administrative structure was introduced in 1997, changing theregional administrative machinery from playing an executive function to that ofconsulting, facilitation, minitoring and evaluation.The Constitution was also amended to allow the re-introduction of multi-party systemin Tanzania. That went in tandem with the enactment of new laws and amendment ofexisting laws to create a conducive environment for building and sustaining a liberaldemocratic system. The Judiciary services were expanded quantitatively andqualitatively. The number of judges and magistrates has increased, for example, thenumber of judges of the Court of Appeal increased from 5 in 1979 to 15 in 2011,among whom 5 are females. Similarly, the number of High Court judges has increasedfrom 7 in 1961 to 61 in 2011 among whom 34 are female. Commercial, Land andLabour divisions of the High Court have been established and more facilities andresources have been allocated to courts in order to enhance efficiency.
  • 8H.E. President Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete with judges whowere sworn in, most of them being women.The powers of Parliament and representation have been strengthened in the past fiftyyears. The same has been witnessed in local government councils where the numberof councillors has increased and positive results are seen in the increased number offemale representative in Parliament and local government councils. The number ofMembers of Parliament has increased from 269 in 1995 to 357 in 2011. At the sametime the number of female Members of Parliament has increased from 45 in 1995 to126 in 2011.The defence and security forces have been empowered and equipped and deployed inpeace keeping missions. Over the years reforms aimed at improving efficiency in thearmed and security forces have been initiated and implemented. The reforms haveincluded the establishment of the National Defence College, increasing people’sparticipation and awareness in defence and security, through community policing andjoint defence programmes. The prison services have also been improved qualitativelyand quantitatively.In the fifty years of independence, some Tanzanians have held high positions inregional and international organisations like the United Nations, World Bank, African
  • 9Union and East Africa Community. Among the notable achievements of Tanzania’sparticipation in the East African Community has been the increase of exports byTanzania to other EAC partner states from USD 96.4 in 2005 to USD 454.29 in 2010as well as employment opportunities and co-operation in education and healthsectors, defence and security.Leaders of the East African Community in one of their meetings, April 2011Tanzania has effectively participated in conflict resolution and reconciliation indifferent African countries which were experiencing conflicts and violence such asKenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Madagascar,Comoro and Cote d’Ivoire. Tanzania has been in the forefront in the establishment ofdifferent institutions of the African Union such as; the African Parliament, AfricanCourt of Justice and Peace and Security Council with the aim of strengthening,promoting and protecting justice, equality and peace in Africa. Tanzania has ratifiedall treaties and protocols of the African Union to demonstrate her commitment topromote democracy, human rights and good governance.
  • 10In the past fifty years of independence Tanzania has recorded tremendousachievements in the political, leadership and culture fields. However, there are severalchallenges which have emerged that have been and need to be addressed. It istherefore imperative to adopt sustainable strategies aimed at enhancing the nation’sfundamental principles and values which include freedom, unity, peace, equality andthe union. Deliberate interventions will be undertaken to strengthen ethical behaviourin leadership, public service and the society in general. Achievements that have beenattained in expanding democracy and human rights as well as development in otherfields will be enhanced in order to ensure the improvement of the quality of life ofeach Tanzanian. There is need for every Tanzanian to wisely and positively utilisedemocratic rights available to maintain and safeguard the nation’s fundamentalprinciples and values.
  • 11CHAPTER THREEECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT This section of the report describes the state of the economy of Tanzania Mainlandsince attainment of independence in 1961. During the fifty years of independencefundamental economic reforms and their impact, together with the associated policies,plans and strategies implemented in the fight against poverty, ignorance and diseasehave been elucidated in this report. The economic achievements attained are clearlyevidenced by the 6% average economic growth rate which, according to statisticspublished in the 2010 World Economic Outlook, places Tanzania Mainland among the20 countries of the world whose economies are growing rapidly.Government revenues have increased from Tshs. 1.4 billion in 1961 to Tshs. 500billion per month in 2010. The revenue increase has been utilised to expand socialservices, especially primary and secondary education, universities and implementationof major development projects, such as the construction of the Mkapa Bridge, and theLake Victoria project that supplies water to Shinyanga and Kahama. The averageGDP per capita increased from US$ 34 in 1961 to US$ 545 per annum in 2010.Inflation has been controlled to a level of not more than 10 percent over the past 15years. Foreign exchange reserves increased by more than 1000 percent in the last 15years.Remarkable progress has been made in the communication sector in terms of theincrease in the number telephone network sevice providers. The number ofCustomers has increased from 90,198 in 1995 to 20,771,487. These improvements inthe telecommunications sector had a multiplier effect on the contribution of othersectors into the economy. For example, financial services are now readily available tothe rural areas. The introduction of automatic teller machines (ATM) in the cities ofTanzania Mainland has enabled banking institutions to establish hour cash deposits
  • 12and withdraw services as necessary. Mobile phone network providers have made itpossible for their customers to send money to or receive money from people living inurban and rural areas.The network of paved roads has expanded to 6,385 kilometres and that of gravel roadsto a total of 84,800 kilometres in 2010. This is an outstanding achievement comparedto the situation in 1961 when the country had only 1,300 kilometres of paved road and29,500km of gravel roads. In addition, the railway network has increased from 2,300km at independence to 4,460 kilometres in 2010.Table No: 6 The Road Network during 1961-2011No. Type of Road1961 1995 2005 2011TarmacRoads(km)Gravel/MuramRoads(km)TarmacRoads(km)Gravel/MuramRoads(km)TarmacRoads(km)Gravel/MuramRoads(km)TarmacRoads(km)Gravel/MuramRoads(km)1. Main Roads 1,300 1000 2,985 7,315 4,330 5,970 5,036 7,7502. Regional Roads - 13,500 210 24,490 327 24,373 841 20,4443. District Roads - 15,000 385 49,615 500 49,500 508 56,606Total 1,300 29,500 3,580 81,420 5,157 79,843 6,385 84,800Source: Ministry of InfrastructureEmployment in the industry sector has increased from 20,000 workers to 560,406workers in small scale industries and to 92,000 in large scale industries. Thecontribution of the industrial sector has increased to 9 percent compared to only 2.3percent in 1961. Implementation of the integrated hides and skins and leather sectordevelopment strategy in the country has been successful, where by the processing ofhides and skins increased from 6,038,000 square feet in 2005 to 37, 305, 215 squarefeet in 2009.
  • 13Research in agriculture has enhanced productivity, increased farmer’s income and theeconomy as a whole. Research centres have been empowered and equipped toundertake the role of training in agricultural service. Betwee 1995 and 2010 a totalof 604 youth were trained to certificate and diploma levels. Productivity in irrigatedrice increased on average, from 2 tons to 7.5 tons per hectare; onions from 13 to 26tons per hectare; tomatoes from 5 to 18 tons per hectare and maize from 1.5 to 4 tonsper hectare. Efficiency of water use in irrigation projects with improved infrastructureincreased by 30 to 45 percent compared to between 10 to 15 percent for projects withtraditional irrigation schemes.As a result of the policy reforms, investment in the mining sector increased sharply,especially, after the opening of six large scale gold mines and one of tanzanite.Expansion of the mining industry has provided opportunities for increased mineralexploration and mining, construction of roads and improvement of social services inthe area around the large mines. There was an increase in employment and by 2010, atotal of 5,496 Tanzanians were employed in large mines and approximately 1.5million are small scale miners. Government revenue taxes from large scale miningcompanies was Tshs. 840 billion in 2010. This sector plays an important role inforeign exchange earnings. Besides the role to administer and supervise naturalresources, antiquities and environment, the Government, recognises the potentialincrease in the GDP which can be derived through proper management of naturalresources and antiquities. Tourism can greatly contribute to economic growth andsignificant achievement has been made. The number of tourists who visited Tanzaniaincreased considerably from 81,821 in 1985 to 782,699 in 2010. Revenue fromtourism increased from US$ 164.9 million in 1985 to US$ 1159.82 million in 2010. Inrecent years, the tourist industry contributed 17 percent of GDP. In establishing thenecessary infrastructure for this sector, 54 airports have been built together with25,627 kilometers of access road network to facilitate tourists to visit differentnational parks. Services have also been improved in the tourist industry in order toattract more clients.
  • 14Similarly, forestation and wildlife conservation has improved, secondary forests haveincreased from 14 to 16, while natural forests have increased from 597 to 802. Furtherreserved forests increased from 9 to 28. Wetlands forests, which did not exist before,have now increased to 44 and national parks are 15 in total. The Government hassuccessfully established 33 wildlife management areas. In addition, 2,328 villages,equal to 22 percent of all villages in the country, are under the participatory forestconservation plan and managing 4,122,500 hectares, which is 12 percent of all forestsin the country. A total of 16 new forests have a road network of 2,700 km and 530buildings. Similarly, the Government has established 1,687 “Malihai” clubs inprimary and secondary schools. The aim of introducing these clubs is to createawareness on the importance of conservation to the community.With regard to environment, a legislation was enacted to establish namely theNational Environment Management Council and National Land Use Commission.These were established in 1983 to advise Government on management andconservation of environment and land use. These institutions became operational in1984 under the Ministry of Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism. Currently,environmental management is under the Office of the Vice President. The NationalEnvironment Policy was developed and adopted in 1977. In order to implement thepolicy effectively , environment Act cap 119 was passed by Parliament in 2005. Theact, among others, enforces the preparation of environment management plans andcarrying out of environmental impact assessments. Similarly, various regulationshave been developed to ensure that the environment is appropriately conserved andmanaged.The volume of fishing increased from 278,093.20 metric tons in 1984 to 347, 157.000metric tons in 2010. The 414,111 tons of fish harvested in 1990 indicates that thefishing industry can make a much bigger contribution to the economy. In 2010,Tanzania Mainland had 163,601 fishermen who harvested nearly 90 percent of all thefish catches in the country. This is more than 400 percent compared to theperformance of 40,000 fishermen who were in the same business in 1970 it is
  • 15estimated that 4.0 million people currently depend on fishing activities in their dailylives.The private sector can give an impetus to the country’s economic growth. Investmentwill increase the gross domestic product and create employment for many Tanzanians.In response to this opportunity, the Government has established an enablingenvironment for trade and investment to facilitate the private sector to play itsimportant role in national economic growth. Government has developed and begunimplementing reform programmes to create a conducive Environment for Investmentand Trade. The implementation of the program has resulted in more simplifiedprocedures for registering business, paying taxes, transfer of title deeds of fixedproperty, registration of land title deeds and reduction of roadblocks.In 1998 the Private Sector Foundation was established to unite the private setor onissues of common interest such as; developing long-term plans, managing andpromoting a sustainable process of negotiations between the Government and theprivate sector and thus encouraging resourceful competition designed to promoteproduction and business activities and fostering economic growth in general. Theorganization comprises of various stakeholders in the private sector from theassociation of agricultural traders, the confederation of industrial owners, associationof bank owners, and the association of stakeholders in the fishing industry. By theyear 2010, this institution included 99 association. This Foundation was establishedfor coordinating issues of the private sector, including commercial disputes, to assistprivate sector stakeholders in getting professional, financial and institutionalassistance. The institution supports stakeholders in private industry to have one voiceon key issues concerning their development. The biggest challenges to the economyinclude the rising prices of goods and services caused by increase in oil prices in theworld market the depreciation of the Tanzania shilling and unreliable electricitysupply. Other challenges include climate change that has affected weather patternscausing droughts in many areas and thus jeopardising food security. Similarly, aneconomic growth rate which is not commensurate to the increasing population growth
  • 16rate, expanding employment opportunities for the youth are created and reducingpoverty are major challenges to the economy. Another challenge relates to theavailability for capital in economic activity in various sectors, especially agriculture.Furthermore, accessibility of collateral for loans to enable enterpreneurs to borrowmoney for economic activities is critical to sustaining the achievements made andaccelerating economic development.
  • 17CHAPTER FOURSOCIAL SERVICESSocial Services which are a basic necessity for a good and healthy life for everyhuman being include health, social welfare, community development, education,water, shelter and housing. Availability of these services is an indicator of humandevelopment and social wellbeing of societies and nations. However, in every societythere are groups of people who due to historical reasons or physical nature cannoteasily access those services without being supported. These groups known asvulnerable groups, include people with disabilities, the elderly, children and the poor.Based on the principles of human rights, human dignity and equality, these groupsshould be assisted to access these basic human needs.Before independence, the colonial government provided social services to a fewcitizens based on discrimination. These services were offered to colonial rulers,workers in plantation, public servants and employees of religious faith basedorganisations. After gaining independence, the system of social services delivery waschanged to ensure accessibility by the majority of citizens.In an effort to improve health provision, various health colleges were established toincrease the number of health professionas in the country. The information availableindicates that, until 2010, the nation had 7,343 medical physicians, compared to 610 in1961. Parallel to the increase of health professionals, the government also constructedfive national referral hospitals, seven zonal referral hospital, 33 referral hospital atregional level, 92 district hospitals, 687 health centre and 5394 dispensaries.Similarly, modern diagnostic equipments have been installed in many health facilitiesto improve the quality and timeliness of health care delivery. Accessibility of suchmodern diagnostic equipments has reduced the costs of referring patients abroad.
  • 18MRI Machine installed at Muhimbili National Hospital CT – Scanner installed at Muhimbili National HospitalThe biggest challenge in the health sector is the availability of adequate healthprofessionals and infrastructure such as hospital buildings and more moderndiagnostic equipments. Another challenge is the reduction of unplanned pregnanciesthrough increasing accessibility to family planning services and safe motherhoodeducation to all citizens in rural and urban area. By improving reproductive healthservices, women will be empowered to participate effectively in economic activities.Similarly, increased accessibility health care services to vulnerable groups such as theelderly, people with disabilities and children is another major challenge.Efforts to enable citizens to access clean and safe water have been undertaken by thegovernment and hence increasing the number of people who have access to clean andsafe water in rural areas from 6 percent to 57.8 percent in 2011 and from 25 percentin 1961 to 86 percent in urban areas during the same period. Furthermore, theconstruction of dams has increased nearly 20 times more, from dams that can store255.1 million cubic meters before independence to 5.2 billion cubic meters in 2011.The availability of water for domestic and industrial use and irrigation has increasedproductivity dramatically in different sectors.
  • 19The President of the United Republic of Tanzania, His Excellency Dr. Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete,inspectingthe Water Project from Lake Victoria to Kahama and Shinyanga towns, May 30, 2009However, despite the achievements made in providing clean and safe water to citizens,a rapid increase in population growth of 4.5% in urban and 2.3% in rural areas, andthe growth of economic and social activities have increased the consumption of waterin the country. Dar es Salaam which is the hub of industries is experiencing a uniquechallenge of rapid population growth of about 8% which is higher than the nationalaverage urban growth of 4.5% per year, and hence creating high demand for water.More efforts are, therefore, required to ensure that all citizens in rural and urban areasaccess clean and safe water.Conservation of water sources and sustainable use of natural resources will bestrengthened and given high priority to maintain biodiversity of the nation. Similarly,environment and water resources conservation will be strengthened to ensure that thecountry has reliable water sources for both domestic and industrial use, generation ofenergy and irrigation. In addition, Local Government will be empowered through
  • 20decentralization by devolution to effectively implement, supervise and manage waterprojects in collaboration with the private sector.Various initiatives to improve the quality of education have been undertaken toeradicate ignorance, expanding educational opportunities and training of manpowerin various fields to meet the the country’s increasing human resource demand. Suchinitiatives include Adult Education, Universal Primary Education, Primary EducationDevelopment Plan (PEDP) and Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP). Theimplementation of these initiatives has increased enrolment in primary from 486,470students in 1961 to 8,419,305 in 2010 and secondary school from 11,832 in 1961 to1,638,699 in 2010. The ratio between boys and girls in primary school stood at 1:1and secondary schools at 1:0.8 in the year 2010. Similarly, teacher to student ratiohas improved to 1:51 for primary school and 1:46 for secondary schools in 2010. Thenational objective is to reach the standard ratio of teacher to student ratio of 1:40 forboth levels of education.The government in collaboration with the private sector and faith based organisations,has established higher learning institutions aiming at filling the manpower gap inorder to meet the growing demands and challenges of science and technology. As aresult of the expansion, the number of students in higher learning institutionsincreased from 14 in 1961 to 110,078 in 2010. These achievements notwithstanding,more higher learning institutions will be established to increase enrolment and toensure that all students with minimum qualifications are admitted. The main objectiveis to be self-sufficient in human capital and to meet the growing demand of skills andexpertise in the country.Education infrastructure, teaching aids and equipment will be increased to meet gapsand to improve efficiency and quality of education in the country. Similarly, curriculawill be reviewed and improved at all levels of education to enable graduands toacquire self employment skills. Pass rates at all levels will also be improved to ensure
  • 21the nation acquires highly qualified manpower that meets national demand andmodern technologic challenges.Primary School Students in Class.In conclusion, demands for social services are increasing rapidly due to the rapidgrowth of the population from 9 million people in 1961 to 45 million in 2010.However, in collaboration with the private sector, the government will strive toprovide quality social services that are commensurate with the rate of populationgrowth.
  • 22CHAPTER FIVECULTURECulture is a nation’s identity, a society’s way of life, its attitude towards life and theway of doing things that distinguishes them from other nations. Important pillars ofculture include customs and traditions, language, art, entertainment and recreation,sports, and history which form systems of production, administration, ideologies andbeliefs.. In the history of Tanzania Mainland, culture has passed through three broadperiods: pre - colonialism, colonial and post-colonial (independence). Therefore, asTanzania Mainland celebrates 50 years of independence, it is important to review nowculture has changed and developed over time.Prior to colonialism, cultures in societies were based on their economic activities,social relations, religious beliefs, taboos and interaction with neighboringcommunities. Those relations were maintained by customs and traditions. The levelsof economic development of most societies, except for the hunter gatherers,communities were similar and were based on ownership of land and its utilization.Land was owned by a clan, and clan members used it according to their ability tocultivate it. Every clan had a leader, who supervised the distribution of land amongclan members. Within the clan, land was allocated to households and in mostcommunities it was inherited through a male child. During this period, the firstpriority in family life, clan and society was children. The fundamental objective ofchild upbringing was to ensure that children grew up within the customs and traditionsof the community. The family and the clan were the first tutors to inculcate values in achild. The child was taught all the basic skills in material production, ethical valuesand good behavior, such as, for example; obedience and respect for elders, especiallyold people.
  • 23When Arabs arrived at the East African Coast between 700-800 A.D, for purposes ofordinary trade and later for slave and ivory trade, they found indigenous peoplecommunicating in a language that is today’s Kiswahili . Many kiswahili words wereborrowed from Arabic and other foreign languages including Portuguese, Hindi,German and English. For instance, the words “shule” and “meza” for “school” and“table” are of German and Portuguese origins respectively while “chai” for “tea” is ofHindi origin.In Pre – Colonial societies, art was used in ritual performance related to health orappeasement of ancestors who looked after the welfare of the living. It was also usedin ceremonies marking rites of passage, such as male circumcision, initiation for girlsinto adulthood, marriage and finally death. Some ceremonies and traditional danceswere held in great secrecy and those who were not involved were prohibited even towatch. Each society had its own forms of art works that differed slightly or greatlyfrom one society to another.Before the advent of foreigners, work and art were closely linked. While cultivating,fishing, grinding or pounding cereals, people sang songs which eased their tasks andrelieved them of the drudgery of repetitive movement. Story telling was a means ofrecording history and passing it on for prosterity, as well as of teaching children andyouths the customs and traditions of the clan and ethnic group. The Sports were forentertainment of participants and the community after work; physical bodydevelopment and building stamina as a way of keeping fit for individual andcommunity self defence. In addition, sports displayed potential talents of membersfrom other and promoted cordial relations between communities. The community alsoallocated grounds for different types of sports close to their residences.During the colonial period, education aimed at destroying or eliminating the desire ofchildren to identify themselves with their community. Religious instruction for
  • 24children tended to alienate them from their families and their communities, causingtension and sadness in many families.With regard to language, the German government opted to use Kiswahili as theofficial language of administration. Britain took over the administration ofTanganyika in 1918 when Germany lost the war and its colonies were put under themandate of the League of Nations. Britain continued using Kiswahili for both officialand social communication. However, English was elevated and given moreprominence. Speaking good English was considered a sign of advancement andcivilisation. However, Kiswahili remained a medium of instruction from primary tomiddle schools, while English became the media of instruction in advanced classes..In the colonial era, art was used to, defend the interests of the colonial system.Traditional art was not valued by colonialists and was regarded as“uncivilised”.Instead, Western forms of art, particularly music, film and English literature wereintroduced to Africans as the ultimate in civilisation. Foreign sports and games suchas football, hockey, netball, and boxing were also brought in by colonialists. Athleticswere common in many societies before the coming of foreigners, but it wasreintroduced in the western way and standardised. Again the meaning of entertainmentchanged completely and people began to regard entertainment as a luxury, which wasnot associated with other activities in the society as it was in the past.After independence, the upringing of children was influenced by the formal educationsystem and the social economic position of respective families. Children from higheconomic status families imitated, as much far as possible, the lifestyles of Europeanand Arabic cultures, or a combination of both. For all groups of Tanzanians,globalisation has brought misconceptions amongst some of the people, especially theeducated and those benefiting from the system, who believe that, African customsand traditions are a constraints to their development. Their driving force is acquisitionof material wealth, and a luxurious life associated with technological conveniencesespecially television, video, internet and social networking contacts (facebook and
  • 25twitter) films and the like. This is a challenge that needs to be addressed in the next 50years to come.Kiswahili has continued to grow despite several challenges. Efforts to promoteKiswahili aimed at, not only, uniting the people, but building a society based onfundamentals of Tanzanians cultural values, in order to restore honour, dignity andrespect, values that were compromised by colonialism. Kiswahili was first usedofficially in the first Parliament after independence, and eventually became themedium of instruction for all subjects in primary schools. It was declared that allpublic organizations and government ministries use Kiswahili as the official languageof communication. Kiswahili has been used to promote economic development, art,campaigns against HIV/AIDS and for mobilising support for African liberationmovements and other countries where people were fighting for their freedom.Taking into account the importance of Kiswahili and a population of more than 150million users around the world, it has been accepted as one of the official languages ofthe African Union and the United Nations. In Tanzania, unlike in the past, musiciansnowadays find no reason to use foreign languages in their songs because most of theirfans prefer Kiswahili to English or other languages. Through Kiswahili they are ableto communicate effectvely with their audience and the community at large.In the past 50 years of independence, great successes have been achieved in promotingand developing Tanzania arts and culture. One of the most important art works are theMakonde carvings and Tingatinga paintings which have become very popular andhave made Tanzania famous worldwide.
  • 26A Tingatinga style painting.Art has been an important source of income for the artists, their families and artdealers. Although it is difficult to quantify, business from Makonde art hascontributed significantly to the national economy. In sports, immediately afterindependence, the government of Tanzania Mainland declared the intention to revive,reinforce and develop sports. By 2011, there are over 30 games and sports beingplayed at national level compared to only 10 at independence. These sports have givenopportunities to Tanzanians interested in sports to show their ability and talents.Tanzanian culture faces many challenges as the tide of globalisation and liberalisationencroaches more and more on all aspects of culture. Traditions, especially thoseconcerning child upbringing and youth who are the cornerstone for developing a
  • 27strong and proud nation are being challenged and even discarded. The biggestchallenge of all is how to inculcate the spirit of patriotism among all citizens,especially among the youth, so that they feel proud and value their own customs andtraditions.
  • 28CHAPTER SIXACHIEVEMENTS, CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARDAchievementsDuring fifty years of independence, Tanzania has recorded significant achievementsas explained in detail in chapters one to five of this report. The most importantachievement is the people’s ability to free themselves from German and Britishcolonial rule and to successfully safeguard their freedom. Priority has been directedtowards building a united nation guided by the fundamental principles of dignity,freedom, progress, equality, justice, independence, unity, patriotism and nationalism,peace and integrity.Great efforts were directed at promoting democracy and laying the foundations forgood governance, the rule of law and protecting the rights of all citizens. In terms ofthe economy, emphasis has been placed on eradicating poverty and improving theliving standard of every Tanzanian.Efforts to build a stable and sustainable economy have focused on the development ofall sectors of the economy covering agriculture, manufacturing, mining, livestock,fisheries, infrastructure, energy, tourism as well as enhancing the skills and knowledgeof human capital. As outlined in chapter three, most economic indicators showconsiderable success in improving the lives of Tanzanians. Tanzania Mainland has, atdifferent times, dared to adopt new economic models in an attempt to combatemerging development challenges.The 1967 Arusha Declaration put Tanzania on the world map for daring to adopt anew ideological and economic model, different from those of the great and powerful
  • 29nations in order to liberate her people from exploitative and oppressive systems. Thecountry did not hesitate to revise economic models in response to challenges arisingfrom internal and external forces, as was the case when Tanzania changed her policyto facilitate private sector investment.Social services have expanded considerably since independence. As described inchapter four of this report, primary education enrolment reached 95.4 percent by 2010,a success for which Tanzania received special recognition by the United Nations foradvancing the Millennium Development Goals in education. Similarly, access tosecondary school education has expanded significantly. Health services, in terms ofprevention and treatment of diseases currently reach the majority of the people in thecountry.Tanzania Mainland has fought hard to effectively combat the HIV/AIDS pandemicand managed to reduce the infection rate from 13 percent in 1990 to 5.7 percent in2008. A big national campaign is underway to eradicate malaria. Substantive watersupply and infrastructure improvement projects have facilitated the distribution ofclean and safe water to many people in urban and rural areas.Tanzanians are proud of a culture they have developed that makes them consider allTanzanians as brothers and sisters, regardless of ethnic origin, religion, race or gender.Human dignity and equality take priority in social relations. Kiswahili language hasgreatly helped in bringing about national unity, making Tanzania unique in the worldfor managing to develop a single indigenous national language, despite the existenceof more than 120 ethnic languages.The arts, such as the Makonde carvings and Tingatinga paintings have also placedTanzania Mainland on the world map. The media have been in the forefront inpromoting nationalism and democracy. In general, Kiswahili languge, the media, artsand sports have been important tools in raising awareness and educating the society,
  • 30as well as portraying a national image of unity, patriotism and solidarity.Challenges As described in chapters one to five, the country has experienced various challenges inevery sector of development. One big challenge relates to how Tanzania will ensurethe sustainability of national unity is protected in the face of formidable economic,political and social forces from within and outside the country. In combating suchforces, however, Tanzania is determined to stand firm to ensure the fundamentalprinciples of dignity, freedom, progress, equality, justice, independence, unity,patriotism and nationalism, peace and integrity are adhered to. This will be possiblethrough strengthening democracy and good governance, ensuring justice for allcitizens and putting emphasis on the ethical conduct of leaders and citizens in general.Other challenges include the need to ensure the economy continues to grow and issustained through increased productivity in all sectors, as well as to expandemployment opportunities and availability of capital and securities to the public.Economic instability caused by changes in the world market, declining exchange rateand high inflation are issues which will be assessed carefully in policy, planning anddevelopment strategies.Although social services have expanded significantly over the past fifty years ofindependence, some Tanzanians still do not have access to such services. As such,efforts will be made to ensure education, water, housing, and health care are availableand affordable to all Tanzanians.Globalization and imperialism pose a serious threat to Tanzanian culture. Patriotismbuilt over the years through customs, socialization, Kiswahili language, arts, mediaand sport, is now grappling with the influence of the cultures of powerful nations andthe impact of globalization. Tanzanians will be vigilant to ensure that while they
  • 31emulate what is beneficial from globalization, the cultural fundamental principles ofTanzania shall be protected and enhanced.Way Forward Tanzanians will continue to protect and maintain their freedom and the fundamentalnational principles, which are dignity, equality, justice, progress, patriotism, unity,peace, ethical integrity and independence. Efforts will be directed towardsstrengthening the nation and improving systems, structures and instruments ofleadership and governance guided by the obligation to meet the basic needs ofcitizens. The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania will continue to beprotected and national security, cooperation and solidarity strengthened. Tanzania alsowill continue to forge and maintain cooperation with other nations, based on theconcept of Pan Africanism as well as respect and comply with ratified protocols of theUnited Nations.In the economic sphere, conducive policies and strategies towards improving thelivelihood of farmers and workers, will be put in place with a view to developing apeople owned and competitive economy which will enable the country to besustainably self- sufficient. An enabling environment, policies and strategies totransform the country into a middle income economy will drive economicdevelopment plans.In the next fifty years, social services will be expanded through the provision ofadequate professionals and infrastructure in health, education, water and shelter fromvillage to nation level. Tanzanian culture, based on the nation’s fundamentalprinciples, will continue to be fostered and promoted in all fields including customs,traditions, arts, language, sports and the media. Kiswahili language will be furtherdeveloped and spread inside and outside the country to facilitate improvedcommunication, increased employment opportunities and the stimulation ofdevelopment. Arts and sports will be developed to enhance their contribution towards
  • 32marketing and developing the nation. The media profession will be enhanced, with afocus on the principles of professionalism, ethics and adherence to the rule of law toenable all citizens, in urban and rural areas, to use the media for their education,information dissemination, entertainment and to improve the quality of their lives.Conclusion The Report has described the socio-political situation in 1961 when Tanzania becameindependent and has discussed cross-cutting issues, major developments in each sectorhighlighting the significant achievements, challenges and initiatives taken to addressthem. The report has elaborated on achievements realised in politics, administrationand justice, economy, provision of social services, development and protection ofculture. Major succeses have been attained in strengthening national unity based onnational fundamentals and principles of respect to humanity, dignity, unity, equality,peace, solidarity and stance position in International Affairs. Tanzania Mainland isrenowned for her unwavering respect of human rights, a front liner in nationalliberation struggles in Africa, a safe home for refugees and an active member forpeace nagotiations. Tanzania is an island of peace and a united country based ondemocratic principles.During the next fifty years Tanzania will continue to implement the National Vision2025 to enable her become a middle income economy. Future plans will be based onthe following objectives; increased productivity and production in agriculture,livestock and fisheries to ensure national food security and surplus for export;improved production of cash crops to raise the incomes of the farmers and peasants; toensure self sufficieny in professional and skilled human resources to meet therequirements of all sectors and to improve social service delivery. Major economicinfrastructure and utilities will be further developed including alternative sources ofenergy to meet the local demand and surplus for export; improvement of roadnetwork, railway, ports, air and water transportation. The industrial sector will begrow at a much higher rate in order to promote value addition and productivity;
  • 33expansion and development of the toursim industry in order to attract more touristsand the development of science and technology especially the application of ICT, insocio-economic development.The First Five Year Development Plan (2011/12 - 2015/16), aims at achieving thefollowing macro-economic targets: the national economy is projected to grow at anaverage annual rate of 8 – 10 percent, inflation rate will be controlled so as not exceedfive percent; value of exports will increase by 23 percent of Gross Domestic Product,foreign reserves will be able to sustain more than six months of import requirements;collection of internal government revenue will be 19 percent of GDP; per capitaincome will increase to an average of USD 650 per annum and the budgetarydependence on development partners will decline from 25% to less than 10 percent.These expectations can be achieved through close collaboration between theGovernment and the people of Tanzania, the private sector and civil societies in theimplementation of the plans. This should be done in tandem with continued efforts tobuild a strong foundation of patriotism, unity, peace and stability, prudent use ofnatural resources, appropriate policies and leadership based on legal and democraticprinciples and human rights.Tanzanians, as a people, know where they came from, where they are and the wayforward.“We Dared, We Succeeded, We are Forging Ahead”
  • 34NATION ANTHEMMungu Ibariki Afrika,Wabariki Viongozi wake,Hekima, Umoja na Amani,Hizi ni Ngao zetu,Afrika na Watu wake,Ibariki Afrika,Ibariki Afrika,Tubariki Watoto wa Afrika.Mungu ibariki Tanzania,Mungu ibariki Tanzania,Dumisha Uhuru na Umoja,Wake kwa Waume na Watoto,Mungu ibariki Tanzania,Tanzania na Watu wake,Ibariki Tanzania,Ibariki Tanzania,Tubariki Watoto wa Tanzania.God Bless Africa,Bless its Leaders,Wisdom, Unity and Peace,These are our Shields,Africa and her People,Bless Africa,Bless Africa,Bless us, Children of Africa.God Bless Tanzania,God Bless Tanzania,Sustain Independence and Unity,Women, Men and Children,God Bless Tanzania,Tanzania and her People,Bless Tanzania,Bless Tanzania,Bless us, Children of Tanzania.
  • 35The President’s Office,P.O. Box 9120,DAR ES SALAAM.Website: www.ikulu.go.tzEmail: ikulu@ikulu.go.tz