TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />Description of Digital Image.<br />Pixels Definition.<br />Types of Digital Imaging: B & W and Color.<br />History of Digital Photography Technology.<br />2000s and Beyond.<br />Digital Cameras.<br />Two types of sensors in digital cameras: CMOS and CCD.<br />Uses of Digital Image Technology in different fields. (Examples)<br />Infrared Technology in Construction.<br />What is an Infrared Thermograph?<br />How an Infrared Camera works and detects moisture? <br />Advantages and Disadvantages of Infrared Technology applied in Construction.<br />Moisture Meter.<br />Conclusions.<br />Video.<br />References.<br />
DESCRIPTION OF DIGITAL IMAGE<br />Digital image is made up of small dots known as pi-xels (short for pi-cture…el-ements). <br />Each pixel(digital image)represents the tiniest unit of the photograph. <br />A pixel is like a tiny dot of a particular color. <br />
PIXELS<br />Are arranged in a regular pattern of rows and columns& it combine and form the entire image.<br />The amount of pixels in a photograph determines the maximum output size of the resulting image in print. <br />A higher pixel number does not represent higher quality images.<br />
TYPES OF DIGITAL IMAGES<br /><ul><li>Two important types:
Black and white images are made of pixels in different shades of gray.</li></li></ul><li>COLOR IMAGES<br /><ul><li>Digital Image An image composed of pixels..</li></ul>Coloredpixelare made up of pixels corresponding to the red, green, and blue (RGB) levels of the image.<br /><ul><li>RGB are the primary colors or (additive primary colors) which are different from the (subtractive primary colors) which used for mixing paints (cyan, magenta, and yellow).
Any color can be created by mixing the correct amounts of red, green, and blue light.</li></li></ul><li>HISTORY OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY<br /><ul><li>First digital image was produced on a computer in 1957.
In the 1960s as NASA began using digital signals in mapping the surface of the moon.
In 1975Steve Sassonbuilt a prototype for the world's first digital camera whichlater commercialized by Kodak.
Since then Image formats changed too and now many digital cameras can store in several image formats such as raw format, JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group), GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) and TIFF (Tagged Image File Format). </li></li></ul><li>HISTORY OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY<br />“Mavica” was the first electronic camera relased by sony in 1981 which did not require film.<br />The camera images were recorded onto a mini disc and then put into a video reader that was connected to a television monitor or color printer. <br />
HISTORY OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGYKodak worked on revolutionizing the way cameras worked.<br /><ul><li>In 1986, Kodak scientists invented the world's first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels that could produce a 5x7-inch digital photo-quality print. At the same year Nikon created a prototype for an analog electronic Single-LensReflex (SLR)camera.
In 1988fuji released a type of device called DS-1P that digitally store images. Since then the popularity of (film cameras) decreased.
In 1991, Kodak released the first professionalDigital Camera System (DCS), aimed at photojournalists. It was a Nikon F-3 camera equipped by Kodak with a 1.3 megapixel sensor. </li></li></ul><li>HISTORY OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY<br />The first digital cameras for the consumer that worked with a home computer via a serial cable were:<br />Apple Quick Take 100 camera (February 17, 1994), the Kodak DC40 (March 28, 1995), the Casio QV-11 (with LCD monitor, late 1995), and Sony's Cyber-Shot Digital Still Camera (1996).<br />Kinko's and Microsoft both collaborated with Kodak to create digital image-making software workstations and kiosks which allowed customers to produce Photo CD Discs and photographs, and add digital images to documents. <br />IBM collaborated with Kodak in making an internet-based network image exchange. <br />Hewlett-Packard was the first company to make color inkjet printers that complemented the new digital camera images. <br />By the end of the 90s, most digital cameras were aimed at professionals and tended to have at least 2.0 megapixels. <br />
2000s AND BEYOND<br />Early 2000, Fujifilm released the (FinePix S1 Pro), which was the first digital SLRto be directed at consumers in the timeline of digital photography technology. <br />In 2001, Cannon introduced the EOS-1D and entered the world of professional digital SLR cameras. <br />Two years later, Canon again upgraded image sensors thatcould detect 6.3 megapixels. <br />In 2004, Kodak announced it would no longer be producing film cameras. In 2004 While megapixel sensors detect up to 22 pixels, there were also camera phones that can sense up to 4 megapixels used on most cellular phones.<br />
2000s AND BEYOND<br />Indeed, there seems to be no end to digital photography technology. <br />Today, over 40 years after the invention of the CCD (A Charge-Coupled Device) to sense light color and intensity, there are millions of cameras stored everywhere – from a Digital SLR, right down to the camera in our mobile phone. This technology is incredibly versatile, and still is a hugely important part of photography today.<br />
DIGITAL CAMERAS<br />One of the most direct ways to capture an image is by digital camera which uses a special semiconductor chip called a CCD (charge coupled device) to convert light to electrical signals right at the image plane.<br />The quality of the images related to the number of pixels the CCD can capture. <br />Affordable digital cameras have low resolution, limited dynamic range, and low ISO film speed equivalent, and consequently do not always produce high quality digital images. <br />To get images with quality comparable to film photography currently requires very expensive digital cameras.<br />
TWO TYPES OF SENSORS ARE USED IN DIGITAL CAMERAS:<br />CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) and CCD (Charge-Coupled Device).<br /> CMOS sensors are less expensive than CCD and also require less power (because the CCD requires more circuits), so the latest digital cameras are based on CMOS sensors (still, the majority of cameras use CCD). <br />It is impossible to say which one is better because both of them have advantages and disadvantages.<br />
USES OF DIGITAL IMAGE TECHNOLOGY IN DIFFERENT FIELDS.<br /><ul><li>One of the major advantages in having medical images in digital form is the ability to perform a variety of processing procedures with a computer. It can be used for MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and for CT Scans.
These procedures can be selected and adjusted to change the characteristics of the images, usually for the purpose of improving quality or optimizing characteristics for maximum visibility. This technology does not x-ray the area, but it uses the differences in material temperatures to pinpoint problems.</li></li></ul><li>USES OF DIGITAL IMAGE TECHNOLOGY IN DIFFERENT FIELDS.<br /><ul><li>Another example of the digital image Technology is to increase security in computers, banks, jails, military etc.
Law enforcement agencies use this technology for tracking and spotting criminals. </li></ul>They have specific software that can identify and recognize the identification of each person through fingerprint readers, geometry and size of the palm of the hands, iris scan, facial recognition, etc.<br />
USES OF DIGITAL IMAGE TECHNOLOGY IN DIFFERENT FIELDS.<br />THERMAL IMAGING SYSTEMS:<br />Have been used by the military to detect and identify enemy personnel, equipment and other type targets for years. <br />Fighter planes, helicopters, and types of missiles use thermal imaging for targeting.<br />
INFRARED TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION.<br />Uses of Infrared Thermograph in construction where temperature differences can be seen while water is evaporating.<br />Surfaces that are wet are cooler than their surrounding area and the detection of these differences can be very useful in the water damage mitigation field.<br />These two glasses visually appear the same.<br />Thermal imaging with an infrared camera. “Paints a different picture.”<br />
INFRARED TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION.<br />What is an Infrared Thermograph?Is an electronic technique for capturing and creating an image of thermal emissions from surfaces. Thermal cameras do not see moisture rather the surface temperature difference and most IR (Infrared) cameras produce a live TV like image.<br />Thermal imaging has been used in the building industry to find problems with building materials, components, and material installation problems. <br />These inspections include water intrusion problems, HVAC leaks, roofing leaks, electrical inspection and many others.<br />
INFRARED TECHNOLOGY.<br />How an Infrared Camera works and detects moisture?<br /><ul><li>The camera sees light that is within the heat spectrum that exists just beyond the spectrum that can be seen with the naked eye.
By viewing the hottest and coldest areas, inspectors can collect valuable data about the building envelope.
The camera converts invisible infrared radiation into a visible image.</li></li></ul><li>INFRARED TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION.<br />The presence of water changes the thermal characteristics of many building materials.<br />Differing heat is displayed in the camera's viewfinder as a gradient color scheme with hotter areas showed as brighter colors, and cooler areas as darker colors. <br />
INFRARED TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION.<br />Advantages.<br />Quick and Non-Intrusive.<br />Does not require relocation of the occupant or the occupant’s contents.<br />Illustrative Visual Presentation of Findings and also confirmation of Failure Points & Moisture Migration Paths.<br />Areas of insufficient insulation become more apparent when viewed through an infrared camera and can be visually documented, as well. <br />Once a solid difference in temperature has been established between the interior and exterior of the house, insulation defects can be viewed by the camera.<br />With the warmer or cooler air from the outside flowing into the house through the cracks and holes, inspectors can use thermal imaging to locate the sources of these air leaks.<br />
INFRARED TECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION.<br />Disadvantages.<br /><ul><li>Cannot see through walls; only detects surface temperature differentials.
Cannot detect subsurface damage (i.e. mold or structural damage).</li></li></ul><li>MOISTURE METER.<br />Thermography is Complementary to Other Techniques that can detect mold.<br />Once the IR inspection is complete, a moisture meter can confirm what is being detected on the camera screen.<br />Ideal to use these instruments together as a means for a thorough inspection.<br />
MOISTURE METER.<br />Mold and leak which are detection with moisture meter.<br />
CONCLUSIONS<br />Cameras are widely used to monitor and record various activities on a construction site. <br />The images produced by the cameras can be processed with digital imaging techniques to help project participants to get a better understanding of the status of the project. <br />Digital camera technology is currently in a state of rapid improvement and change. <br />It is difficult, therefore, to give specific recommendations that will be valid for more than a few months.<br />Important general aspects are of course image quality and the availability of a live image on the computer screen, so that precise focusing is possible.<br />