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  1. 1. Automation<br />By: Christopher Bridge & Joao Dos Santos<br />Student Numbers: 100675720 & 100429542<br />Date: Wednesday, March 30, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Definition<br />Brief history of automation<br />Type of automation<br />3.1 Computer-aided design (CAD)<br />3.2 Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)<br />3.3 Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)<br />Major technologies involving automation<br />4.1 Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Technology<br />4.2 Robotic Technology<br />4.3 Programmable Logic Control (PLC) Technology<br />
  3. 3. Table of Contents Con't<br />Manufacturing performance<br />Benefits of automation<br />Automation strategies<br />Summary<br />Bibliography<br />
  4. 4. Definition<br />“Automation defines as the application of mechanical, electrical and or computer technology to reduce the level of human participation in performing task” (Automation Technologies, pg. 27).<br />
  5. 5. Brief History<br />Beginning man always looked for better way to develop life<br />Work & home<br />1st automation = born in factories<br />19th century = 1st application electricity permitted to make automated operation without human being<br />Automation created artificial intelligence<br />Intelligence of machines & computer science = creates it<br />Delmar Harder first used the word in 1935 but James R. Bright introduced automation in 1958 into the manufacturing of automobiles <br />
  6. 6. Types of Automation<br />Computer-aided Design (CAD) & <br />Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM)<br />Software that improves dramatically, way <br />products are designed<br />Ex. Shop floor control system<br />Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)<br />Links the design of a product with manufacturing, resulting in a completely integrated manufacturing facility<br />
  7. 7. CAD<br />Often in form of electronic files for<br />printing or machines<br />Industry-based software<br />Ex. Construction, manufacturing, ship<br />building, aerospace, automotive,<br />architectural & prosthetics<br />Graphic based software, uses linear lines & shapes<br />Information it displays are: materials, processes, dimensions & tolerances<br />Design curves & or figures in 2D or 3D<br />
  8. 8. CAM<br />Computer software designed to control & operate machines<br />Manufacturing for planning, management, transportation & storage<br />Main purpose = minimize waste of raw materials to produce fast & quality products<br />Project designed in CAD – used in manufacturing under CAM<br />
  9. 9. CIM<br />Using computers to control entire production process<br />Exchange information & action with one another<br />Manufacturing = faster & little errors<br />Main advantage to create automated manufacturing processes = eliminating human beings <br />
  10. 10. Major Technologies <br />Computer Numerical Control (CNC) <br />Utilizes combination of mechanical, electrical & computer technology = tool moving by computer software rather than hand<br />Robotic Technology <br />Similar to CNC<br />Move in 3D<br />Ex. Cartesian coordinate Robotic, Scara, articulated arm robotic<br />Programmable Logical Control (PLC)<br />Motion control over tasks<br />Using electrical & computer technology<br />Coordinates activities between CNC machines & robot<br />
  11. 11. CNC <br />Program commands on storage medium<br />1st CNC = 1940s based on existing tools, modified for motors<br />Modern CNC = analog & digital computers, changed manufacturing process<br />Highly demanding on CAD & CAM<br />
  12. 12. Robotic<br />Deals with design, construction,<br />operation, structural disposition,<br />manufacturing & application<br />Current power source = lead batteries, future sources could be pneumatic, hydraulics or radioactive source<br />Actuators = muscles of robot<br />Current robots can have touch & vision, similar to humans – manufacturing process much easier<br />Locomotion – move from 1 place to another in manufacturing process<br />
  13. 13. PLC<br />Digital computer used for automation<br />Ex. Control of machinery on assembly lines, amusement rides or lighting fixtures<br />Unlike a general PC, PLC has multiple inputs & outputs, temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise & resistance to vibration & impact<br />Programs typically stored in battery packed memory<br />
  14. 14. Manufacturing Performance<br />Measures used most often to quality production are:<br />Productivity<br />Setup time measure of amount of time to prepare machine or process, make product hour<br />Production capacity<br />
  15. 15. Benefits<br />Increase labour output<br />Increasing output – direct effect on increasing productivity<br />Ex. Robot handle material<br />Use of PLC to control manual process<br />Can be expressed in GDP<br />3 most common measures of input<br />Hours worked<br />Work forced job<br />Number people employment<br />
  16. 16. Benefits Con't<br />Reduce labour cost<br />Direct increasing productivity<br />Cheaper manufacturing process<br />Reduce labour cost = most profit<br />Reduce or eliminate labour shortages<br />By eliminating man, injuries & time off do not occur<br />Reduce or eliminate routine manual electrical tasks<br />Reduce or elimination of routine tasks<br />1st step improving processes productivity<br />
  17. 17. Benefits Con`t<br />Improve worker safety<br />Reducing accidents also increase productivity<br />Improve product quality<br />Improve products quality yields many benefits to manufacturer<br />Reduced wastes in business & environment = quality products & higher sales<br />
  18. 18. Strategies<br />Minimized manufacturing process steps<br />Increase process fexibility<br />Improving process flexibility enables machine to process more product variety<br />Flexibility achieved by minimizing or eliminating setup time<br />Implement process control <br />Produce high quality product – consistent & reliable process<br />Achieve this = process must be rigorously control<br />
  19. 19. Summary<br />Benefits of automation technology have changed manufacturing industries<br />Always expressed in productivity improvement by looking at:<br />Reducing labour output<br />Improving worker safety<br />Improving product quality<br />Reducing producing time<br />
  20. 20. Work Cited<br />Kandray, D. (Ed.). (2010). Programmable automation. New York: Library of Congress Catalog<br />Make, F. (2008). Our flexible friends [factory automation]<br />Ime, A (2010, Feb 16). The history of automation,<br />
  21. 21. Thank You!Any Questions?<br />