EXPLORING OURGEOGRAHIC WORLD PREPAID BY: Valery Ann G. Cutaran SOURCE: RHS-ANDERSONAll graphics are clip art or from www.google.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS: UNDERTANDING THE TOOLS OF GEOGRAPHY APPLYING THE FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY LEARNING TO MAKE ,READ,USE MAPS
What is GEOGRaPhY? GEOGRAPHY is the study of the worlds environment and mans interaction within the environment. Geography has two “strands” or parts: PHYSICAL: The study of the earths natural features, such as mountains, rivers, soil, vegetation, and weather and HUMAN: (Cultural) The study of human cultures and man made features.
The contribution ofgeography to society ismultifold:It provides people with abetter understanding of theplaces, regions and countriesin which they live, as well asof other countries
MaPs A map is a 2 dimensional graphic of the earth or part of the earth. A person who makes maps is called a cartographer. Maps are important as a tool for geography because we can show so much information about the earth on one document. There are parts to maps, types of maps, and even map projections that are very important as a basis for all of geography.
TYPES OF MAPS 1. Political Map- this is a map that shows political boundaries, borders, area of political entities (countries, states, territories, districts, zones, counties, provinces, etc) 2. Physical Map- This type of map uses colors to show elevation and other land/water features of the earth. 3. Thematic Map- This type of map shows “themes” or subjects on a map- basically any information.
ATLAS Any collection of maps, graphs, and charts is called an atlas. We use atlases as a geographic resource for looking up all kinds of information= From where places are located To population and economic information To topographic information about the surface of the earth.
MAP PERSPECTIVE Map Perspective is to look at a map with a DIFFERENT point of view. Think, for example, how people from Africa would look at a map versus someone from Far East Asia….or someone from Australia versus someone from Europe. Everyone has a different point of view when it comes to maps….it’s not that theyre wrong, it’s just different.
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE Reading coordinates is very important in finding location in geography Remember that you read the “x-axis” (latitude) first and then read the “y-axis” (longitude) second. (x,y) X- AXIS Y- AXIS
THE GLOBAL GRID The Earth is divided by latitude and longitude lines. There are several important lines to know on the earths surface: #1 is the ARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o NORTH of the Equator #2 is the TROPIC OF CANCER found at 23 ½ o NORTH of the Equator #3 is the EQUATOR which splits the earth into two hemispheres at 0o Latitude #4 is the TROPIC OF CAPRICORN found 23 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator. #5 is the ANTARCTIC CIRCLE found at 66 ½ o SOUTH of the Equator#6 is the PRIME MERIDIAN which runs north to south at 0oLONGITUDE
READING COORDINAT S E• Read the coordinates for LATITUDE first…. 33o NORTH latitude• Read LONGITUDE next….97o WEST longitude• Which means that coordinates for Dallas, Texas would look like this: 33oN, 97oW
GRID MAPSGrid maps are another way to look atfinding location. Instead of latitude andlongitude lines, use grid squares to find aspecific place on a small area of theearth. Cheddar, England is found in grid square A-9
MAP PROJECTIONS To find just the right map to use, ask yourself “What am I trying to show on my map?” You don’t want to use a map that has too much distortion (being mis-shapen on a map) Usually you ask the question for one of the following four map topics: AREA DIRECTION DISTANCE SHAPE
MERCATOR Mercator Map Projection: Shows accurate direction, but area & shapes are severely distorted at the poles. Mercator projections are based on cylinders. ***Sailors would use these for true direction
ROBINSON Robinson Map Projection: Shows accurate shape & size of continents, but water areas are expanded to fill in area. Robinson projections are based on ovals. ***These maps are good for data collections like in a classroom or lab.
LOCATION Most geographic study begins with learning the location of places. Location can be absolute or relative. Absolute location provides a definite reference to locate a place. The reference can be latitude and longitude, a street address, or even the Township and Range system. Relative location describes a place with respect to its environment and its connection to other places.
PLACE Place describes the human and physical characteristics of a location. Physical characteristics include a description such things as the mountains, rivers, beaches, topography, and animal and plant life of a place. Human characteristics include the human- designed cultural features of a place, from land use and architecture to forms of livelihood and religion to food and folk ways to transportation and communication networks.
HUMANative ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONThis themes considers how humansadapt to and modify theenvironment. Humans shape thelandscape through their interactionwith the land; this has both positiveand negative effects on theenvironment.
MOVEMENT Humans move, a lot! In addition, ideas, fads, goods, resources, and communication all travel distances. This theme studies movement and migration across the planet.
REGION Region divides the world into manageable units for geographic study. Regions have some sort of characteristic that unifies the area. Regions can be formal, functional, or vernacular. Formal regions are those that are designated by official boundaries, such as cities, states, counties, and countries. For the most part, they are clearly indicated and publicly known.
Functional regions are defined by their connections. For example, the circulation area for a major city area is the functional region of that paper. Vernacular regions are perceived regions, such as "The South," "The Midwest," or the "Middle East;" they have no formal boundaries but are understood in our mental maps of the world.
WHAT IS MAPS? the basic tools of geography is a representation of a larger portion of the earth a flat representation of the curved surface of the earth
Conventions used incartography which allow amap to be read efficientlyand quickly:
* Choose the right map. A widevariety of maps are available for a widevariety of uses.* Check the maps orientation. Mostmaps are drawn with north located at thetop.
* Understand the scale of the map.The map scale shows you a ratio of mapdistance to real distance * Note the latitude and longitude. Ifyoure traveling to the next town, this isntso important. But if you are sailing,flying, or touring long distances, thismight be useful.
*L earn to read contour lines. Howhigh or flat the land is represented onthe map with contour lines. Each linerepresents a standard height above sealevel.
*E xamine the legend. Most maps have alegend or key of symbols on the map itself.Get familiar with how your map representsdata*Figure out where you are. You haveyour map and youre ready to use it. Nowyou need to figure out where you are beforeyou can plot where youre going.
*Find your destination. Now its timeto figure out where you want to go* Use the maps index. Some maps,such as a Thomas Guide, have indexesstating the location of certain places on amap. This location could be grid numbersor pages.
P the route out. Now that you lothave figured out where you want togo, plot the route for your first leg ofyour journey.
I have chosen this topic because as astudent in this course I want to learnabout people and their societies,economies, cultures and theenvironment. Besides I want to enhancethe wide range understanding of eachand everyone on their geography and toappreciate the world they are livingin whether its a city, a village, amountain, a border, a people. We allknow that learning geography canprovide people with a holisticunderstanding of our planet and itssystems.
Studying geography is it acquires abetter understanding appreciation ofenvironment meaning it helps us tofigure out the relationships betweencountries to countries and throughthis statement as a student in thiscourse I want to enhance my learningcapabilities in studying our world. Ican say that nothing is better in thisworld but to learn, to explore, to beaware and to be informing in ourgeography. Knowing geography will makeyour life more interesting, moreexciting, and more fun
REFLECTION:Through this portfolio I havelearned a lot of things I learnedhow to understand the tools ofgeography, to apply the fivethemes of geography, and to use,make and read maps. I alsolearned how to apply all thosethings in a real life situationand to become more responsible incaring of the entire natural giftthat God has given to us.
Studying geography is notjust focusing on itsphysical aspects but westudy this in order for usto value the entire naturalgift that God bestowed uponus. All the things that weare having right know is apart of geography
All the things that I havelearned within this course helpme to become responsible teachersomeday and to teach my pupilswith the real value of studyingour geography. I will apply allthe things that I have learnedthrough this chapter to my futurepupils to assess their wide rangelearning and to become a wellrounded global citizen in theirgenerations