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Aquatic biomes
 

Aquatic biomes

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    Aquatic biomes Aquatic biomes Presentation Transcript

    • AQUATIC BIOMES
      The biosphere is that portion of Earth inhabited by life and represents the sum of all communities and ecosystems.
      A biome is a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions. 
    • Aquatic Biomes account for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area, and all types are found in the globe.
      Ecologists distinguish between freshwater biomes and marine biomes on the basis of their physical and chemical differences.
      • Marine biomes generally have salt concentrations that average 3%, whereas freshwater biomes only have less than 1%.
      • Freshwater Biomes
      • Marine Biomes
    • Many aquatic biomes are physically and chemically stratified for both a lake and marine environment.
      Vertical Stratification
      based on physical and chemical variables, such as
      light
      temperature
      • Light
      is absorbed by organisms and the water
      intensity decreases rapidly with dept
      • Temperature
      light-penetrated layer
      warmed by heat energy from sunlight2
      deep waters
      beyond penetration of light
      are uniformly cold
    • The surface waters are warmer and the deeper ocean is colder. Between them is the thermocline which is a thin zone where temperature decreases rapidly with depth.
    • PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
      In Marine Ecosystems is limited by:
      Light
      is first variable to control primary production in oceans
      since solar radiation can only penetrate to a certain depth (photic zone)
      more than 50% of solar radiation is absorbed in first meter of water
      even in "clear" water, only 5-10% of radiation reaches depth of 20m
      Nutrients
      nitrogen and phosphorus
      most often limit marine production
      are examples of limiting nutrients (nutrients that must be added for production to increase)
      concentrations are low in photic zone where photosynthesis could occur
      often more available in deep waters where its too dark for photosynthesis
    • PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY
      In Freshwater Ecosystems is limited by:
      Solar radiation and Temperature
      Nutrient limitations also common
      phosphorus is usually limiting nutrient (rather than nitrogen as in oceans), hence, shift in late 1970’s to phosphate-free detergents
      Cultural eutrophication
      Eutrophication of lakes as a result of input of nutrients from sewage and fertilizer pollution
    • THE FRESHWATER BIOMES
      1. Standing (Lentic) Bodies of Water
      Lakes and Ponds
      Wetlands
      2. Moving (Lotic) Bodies of Water
      Rivers and Streams
    • THE MARINE BIOMES
      Marine biomes include three categories: 
      1) Oceans 2) Coral reefs3) Estuaries 
    • THE DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR AQUATIC BIOMES