5. muscular system
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5. muscular system

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    5. muscular system 5. muscular system Presentation Transcript

    • THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
      • Function: locomotion
      •  
      • Types of muscles in vertebrates
      •  
      • Involuntary (Smooth)- associated with viscera; no striations
      • Voluntary (striated) skeletal muscles; under conscious control
      • Involuntary striated cardiac muscles- found in the heart
      • Tendons
        • Straps of densely connective tissue attaching muscles to bones
      • Muscles in movable joints of vertebrates are attached in opposing pairs:
        • Flexors and Extensors
    • MUSCLE ORGANIZATION
    • A CLOSER LOOK AT THE MUSCLE FIBER MYOSIN ACTIN Z Line H Zone I Band
    • THE MYOFIBRIL
    • Muscular Contraction- THE SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY
      • Thin filaments slide across the thick filaments to pull the Z lines together and shorten the sarcomere
      • I Bands shorten and H zone disappears
      • sarcomeres in myofibril shorten, they are pulled toward the center of the myofibril and the muscle to contract to about half of its resting length
    • How Muscles Work
      • When myosin filaments contract heads of myosin filaments move first, moving them closer in the direction of the flex.
      • Role of Calcium Ions in Contraction
        • When muscle is relaxed, attachment sites for myosin heads are physically blocked by tropomyosin.
          • In order to contract a muscle, troponin must move tropomyosin.
            • Complex regulated calcium ion concentration.
              • Muscle fibers store Ca++ in sarcoplasmic reticulum.
    •  
    • HUMAN MUSCULAR SYSTEM