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3. cellular basis of life

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Do you know that….
    • The average human being is composed of around 100 Trillion individual cells!!!
    • Each cell has about 10,000 times as many molecules as the Milky Way has stars
    • Three-hundred-million cells die in the human body every minute
  • 3. Discovery of Cells
    • 1665- English Scientist, Robert Hooke , discovered cells while looking at a thin slice of cork.
    • He described the cells as tiny boxes or a honeycomb
    • He thought that cells only existed in plants and fungi
  • 4. Anton van Leuwenhoek
    • 1673- Used a handmade microscope to observe pond scum & discovered single-celled organisms
    • He called them “animalcules”
    • He also observed blood cells from fish, birds, frogs, dogs, and humans
    • Therefore, it was known that cells are found in animals as well as plants
    • Father of Microscopy
  • 5. Development of Cell Theory
    • 1838- German Botanist, Matthias Schleiden , concluded that all plant parts are made of cells
    • 1839- German physiologist, Theodor Schwann , who was a close friend of Schleiden, stated that all animal tissues are composed of cells.
  • 6. Development of Cell Theory
    • 1858- Rudolf Virchow , German physician, after extensive study of cellular pathology, concluded that cells must arise from preexisting cells.
  • 7.
    • 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39)
    • 2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39)
    • 3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells. (Virchow)(1858)
    The 3 Basic Components of the Cell Theory
  • 8. Modern Cell Theory
    • Modern Cell Theory contains 4 statements, in addition to the original Cell Theory:
    • The cell contains hereditary information(DNA) which is passed on from cell to cell during cell division.
    • All cells are basically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities.
  • 9. Modern Cell Theory 3. All basic chemical & physiological functions are carried out inside the cells.(movement, digestion,etc) 4. Cell activity depends on the activities of sub-cellular structures within the cell(organelles, nucleus, plasma membrane)
  • 10. Modern Microscopes
      • Types
        • Light microscope (400-1000X)
        • Confocal/Fluorescence microscope (500X)
        • Electron microscope (1000-10000X)
  • 11. MICROSCOPE
  • 12. The light microscope enables us to see the overall shape and structure of a cell
  • 13.
    • combined the laser scanning method with the 3D detection of biological objects labeled with fluorescent markers
    • achieves a controlled and highly limited depth of focus
    Confocal/Fluorescence microscope
  • 14. Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
    • They use a beam of electrons instead of light
      • allows greater magnification
      • reveals cellular details
    -produces an image of the 3D structure of the surface of a specimen Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
  • 15. DIVERSITY OF CELLS
  • 16. Two Fundamentally Different Types of Cells
  • 17. The PRESENCE OR ABSENCE of a NUCLEUS is important for Classifying Cells.
  • 18. Prokaryotes – Domain Bacteria -> Single cell organisms -> No nucleus, no compartments -> Peptidoglycan cell walls -> Binary fission -> For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
  • 19.
    • -> Lack peptidoglycan
    • -> Live in extreme environments
    • Include:
      • Methanogens
      • Extreme halophiles
      • Extreme thermophiles
    • -> Role in disease not well understood—this group has only recently been discovered
    Prokaryotes – Domain Archea
  • 20. Eukaryotes
  • 21.
    • Structural Differences
      • Plants have choloroplasts, a large central vacuole and a cell wall
      • Plant cells do not have centrioles
      • Plant cells have plasmodesmata
      • Animal cells have gap junctions
    • Physiological Differences
      • Plant cells have photosynthesis in addition to respiration
      • During mitosis a cell plate is formed in plant cells
      • Starch is molecule for energy storage while in animal cells it is glycogen
      • Large central vacuole stores more water and carbohydrates then animal cell vacuoles
  • 22. Different Cell Parts In cells, various specialized functions occur in specific places. These places are called organelles  (small organs)
  • 23. Plasma Membrane FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
  • 24.
    • Cell membrane separates living cell from nonliving surroundings
      • thin barrier = 8nm thick
    • Controls traffic in & out of the cell
      • selectively permeable
      • allows some substances to cross more easily than others
        • hydrophobic vs hydrophilic
    • Made of phospholipids , proteins & other macromolecules
  • 25.  
  • 26. Phospholipid Bilayer
    • Lipids
      • Organic compounds
      • Fats + Oils
      • Non-polar
      • Insoluble in water (Not attracted to water)
    • Phosphate Head
      • Polar
      • Water-soluble (Attracted to water)
    Here is what a phospholipid bi-layer looks like as a sphere FATTY ACIDS POLARHEAD Phosphate Group Glycerol Backbone Water-Soluble Water-Insoluble
  • 27.
    • The internal composition of the cell is maintained because the plasma membrane is selectively permeable to small molecules.
    • Only small, relatively hydrophobic molecules are able to diffuse across a phospholipid bilayer at significant rates by using passive diffusion.
    Permeability of phospholipid bilayers
  • 28. Transport Across Membranes
  • 29. Transport Across Membranes: PASSIVE DIFFUSION The movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are at a high concentration to a region of lower concentration
  • 30.  
  • 31.
    • Gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide)
    • Water molecules (rate slow due to polarity)
    • Lipids (steroid hormones)
    • Lipid soluble molecules (hydrocarbons, alcohols, some vitamins)
    • Small noncharged molecules (NH 3 )
    SIMPLE DIFFUSION
  • 32.
    • Ions
    • (Na + , K + , Cl - )
    • Sugars (Glucose)
    • Amino Acids
    • Small water soluble
    • molecules
    • Water (faster rate)
    FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  • 33. How do molecules move through the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion?
    • Channel and Carrier proteins are specific:
    • Channel Proteins allow ions, small solutes, and water to pass
    • Carrier Proteins move glucose and amino acids
    • Facilitated diffusion is rate limited, by the number of proteins channels/carriers present in the membrane.
  • 34.
      • Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane.
      • Osmotic pressure is the pressure that develops in a system due to osmosis.
    OSMOSIS
  • 35. Concentration of water
    • Direction of osmosis is determined by comparing total solute concentrations
      • Hypertonic - more solute, less water
      • Hypotonic - less solute, more water
      • Isotonic - equal solute, equal water
    water net movement of water hypotonic hypertonic
  • 36. Active Transport
    • Cells may need to move molecules against concentration gradient
      • shape change transports solute from one side of membrane to other
      • protein “pump”
      • “ costs” energy = ATP
    “ The Doorman” conformational change ATP low high
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40.
      • Endocytosis
      • Vesicles form as a way to transport molecules into a cell
      • a. Phagocytosis
      • Large,particulate matter ( Bacteria, viruses, and aged or dead cells).
      • b. Pinocytosis
      • Liquids and small particles dissolved in liquid
  • 41.
      • Exocytosis
      • Vesicles form as a way to transport molecules out of a cell
  • 42. Cytoplasm
    • Thick, clear liquid residing between the cell membrane holding organelles
    • many of the complex chemical reactions/ metabolic pathways take place here such as:
    • Glycolysis
    • gluconeogenesis
    • biosynthesis of sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids
  • 43. Mitochondria * site of cellular respiration * POWERHOUSE OF A CELL Where energy is released from nutrients * there are MANY in a single cell * has two layers, makes up a double membrane
  • 44.
    • Act similar to electric power plant
    • Up to 300 to 800 per cell
    • Come from cytoplasm in EGG
    • You inherited your mitochondria from your mother
  • 45. certain organelles originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as endosymbionts . Mitochondria developed from proteobacteria Can replicate itself: BINARY FISSION ENDOSYMBIOSIS
  • 46.
    • (1) outer membrane
    • It is fairly smooth.
    • It is composed of phospholipid bilayer protein.
    • it has channel protein: hole protein , permit that small molecule substance freely pass.
    The ultrastructure of mitochondrion
  • 47.
    • (2)inner membrane
    • they are more proteins than phospholipids.
    • it has no hole protein , so penetrability is weak .
  • 48.
    • (3) intermembrane space
    • it contains enzymes . It can catalyze ATP to create ADP.
    • (4)Matrix
    • Enzymes are abundant in the matrix . It also contains mitochondrial genetic system including DNA and ribosome.
    • (5) elementary particle
    • it also call ATP synthase.
    • it lies in the inner membrane .
  • 49. The Functions of mitochondrion
    • Production of ATP through respiration
    • cellular metabolism 
    • citric acid cycle or the Krebs Cycle
  • 50. Chloroplasts chloroplasts in plant cell cross section of leaf leaves chloroplast absorb sunlight & CO 2 make energy & sugar chloroplasts contain chlorophyll CO 2
  • 51. Structure
    • Chloroplasts
      • double membrane
      • stroma
        • fluid-filled interior
      • thylakoid sacs
      • grana stacks
    • Thylakoid membrane contains
      • chlorophyll molecules
      • electron transport chain
    outer membrane inner membrane thylakoid granum stroma
  • 52.  
  • 53. Nucleus * surrounded by a nuclear membrane * only found in EUKARYOTES * contains genetic material (DNA) in the form of chromosomes that controls the activities of the cell * serves as the information and administrative center of the cell
  • 54.  
  • 55.
    • Nucleoplasm
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Nuclear pores
    • Chromatin
      • DNA + associated proteins
    • Nucleolus
    • internal structure of nucleus, site of ribosome assembly
    • Chromatin vs. Chromosome
    Nucleus: Structure
  • 56. The Major Functions of the Nucleus
    • stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA
    • coordinates the cell's activities
    • -intermediary metabolism
    • -growth
    • -protein synthesis
    • -reproduction (cell division)
  • 57. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - a series of interconnecting channels associated with storage, synthesis, and transport of substances within the cell two types: A) rough --the 'ER' studded with ribosomes B) smooth --the 'ER' without any ribosomes
  • 58. Rough endoplasmic reticulum production and processing of specific proteins at ribosomal sites.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.
    • carbohydrate metabolism
    • regulation of calcium ions
    • synthesis of steroids and lipids
    • drug detoxification
    • metabolism of steroids
    Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • 61. Ribosomes Protein Synthesis "translates" the genetic information from ` RNA into proteins
  • 62.
    • looks like a stack of flattened pancakes
    • All of the proteins and lipids synthesized by the RER and SER are sent to the golgi. 
    • sorts, modifies, and packages the products of the RER and SER before sending them to their final destination inside or outside of the cell.
    Golgi Apparatus
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65. Vacuole " a "space" in a cell that contains water or other materials; usually for storage A) food vacuoles--store food B) contractile vacuoles-- squeeze out excess water
  • 66.
    • Centrioles
      • found in animal cells; rare in plants
      • cylindrical structures (like cans) found in the cytoplasm that appears to function during cell division (reproduction)
      • involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and in the completion of cytokinesis
     
  • 67.
    • Cell Wall
      • found mostly in plant cells (some monerans, protists, and fungi too)
      • a non-living structure which surrounds and supports a cell
      • made of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate
  • 68. Lysosome “ Suicidal bags of the cell” a vacuole that contains digestive enzymes; helps in the process of nutrition by breaking down nutrients in the cell
  • 69.
    • Peroxisomes
    • helps to rid the body of the host organism of toxins
    • breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation
  • 70.
    • Cilia and Flagella
      • these are hair-like organelles that extend from the surface of many different types of cells
    • cilia--are typically smaller than flagella, but they cover the outside of the organism
    • flagella--are much longer than cilia, but there usually are few on a single cell
      • these structures usually aid in movement
      • they can also help sweep materials along the outside of a cell
  • 71.  

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