Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
3. cellular basis of life
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

3. cellular basis of life

7,205

Published on

2 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
7,205
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
211
Comments
2
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Do you know that…. <ul><li>The average human being is composed of around 100 Trillion individual cells!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell has about 10,000 times as many molecules as the Milky Way has stars </li></ul><ul><li>Three-hundred-million cells die in the human body every minute </li></ul>
  • 3. Discovery of Cells <ul><li>1665- English Scientist, Robert Hooke , discovered cells while looking at a thin slice of cork. </li></ul><ul><li>He described the cells as tiny boxes or a honeycomb </li></ul><ul><li>He thought that cells only existed in plants and fungi </li></ul>
  • 4. Anton van Leuwenhoek <ul><li>1673- Used a handmade microscope to observe pond scum & discovered single-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>He called them “animalcules” </li></ul><ul><li>He also observed blood cells from fish, birds, frogs, dogs, and humans </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it was known that cells are found in animals as well as plants </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Microscopy </li></ul>
  • 5. Development of Cell Theory <ul><li>1838- German Botanist, Matthias Schleiden , concluded that all plant parts are made of cells </li></ul><ul><li>1839- German physiologist, Theodor Schwann , who was a close friend of Schleiden, stated that all animal tissues are composed of cells. </li></ul>
  • 6. Development of Cell Theory <ul><li>1858- Rudolf Virchow , German physician, after extensive study of cellular pathology, concluded that cells must arise from preexisting cells. </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39) </li></ul><ul><li>2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39) </li></ul><ul><li>3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells. (Virchow)(1858) </li></ul>The 3 Basic Components of the Cell Theory
  • 8. Modern Cell Theory <ul><li>Modern Cell Theory contains 4 statements, in addition to the original Cell Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>The cell contains hereditary information(DNA) which is passed on from cell to cell during cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>All cells are basically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities. </li></ul>
  • 9. Modern Cell Theory 3. All basic chemical & physiological functions are carried out inside the cells.(movement, digestion,etc) 4. Cell activity depends on the activities of sub-cellular structures within the cell(organelles, nucleus, plasma membrane)
  • 10. Modern Microscopes <ul><ul><li>Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light microscope (400-1000X) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confocal/Fluorescence microscope (500X) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron microscope (1000-10000X) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 11. MICROSCOPE
  • 12. The light microscope enables us to see the overall shape and structure of a cell
  • 13. <ul><li>combined the laser scanning method with the 3D detection of biological objects labeled with fluorescent markers </li></ul><ul><li>achieves a controlled and highly limited depth of focus </li></ul>Confocal/Fluorescence microscope
  • 14. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) <ul><li>They use a beam of electrons instead of light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allows greater magnification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reveals cellular details </li></ul></ul>-produces an image of the 3D structure of the surface of a specimen Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
  • 15. DIVERSITY OF CELLS
  • 16. Two Fundamentally Different Types of Cells
  • 17. The PRESENCE OR ABSENCE of a NUCLEUS is important for Classifying Cells.
  • 18. Prokaryotes – Domain Bacteria -> Single cell organisms -> No nucleus, no compartments -> Peptidoglycan cell walls -> Binary fission -> For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
  • 19. <ul><li>-> Lack peptidoglycan </li></ul><ul><li>-> Live in extreme environments </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methanogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme halophiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme thermophiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>-> Role in disease not well understood—this group has only recently been discovered </li></ul>Prokaryotes – Domain Archea
  • 20. Eukaryotes
  • 21. <ul><li>Structural Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants have choloroplasts, a large central vacuole and a cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant cells do not have centrioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant cells have plasmodesmata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal cells have gap junctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physiological Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant cells have photosynthesis in addition to respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During mitosis a cell plate is formed in plant cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch is molecule for energy storage while in animal cells it is glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large central vacuole stores more water and carbohydrates then animal cell vacuoles </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Different Cell Parts In cells, various specialized functions occur in specific places. These places are called organelles  (small organs)
  • 23. Plasma Membrane FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
  • 24. <ul><li>Cell membrane separates living cell from nonliving surroundings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thin barrier = 8nm thick </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls traffic in & out of the cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>selectively permeable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows some substances to cross more easily than others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophobic vs hydrophilic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Made of phospholipids , proteins & other macromolecules </li></ul>
  • 25.  
  • 26. Phospholipid Bilayer <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats + Oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-polar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water (Not attracted to water) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phosphate Head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-soluble (Attracted to water) </li></ul></ul>Here is what a phospholipid bi-layer looks like as a sphere FATTY ACIDS POLARHEAD Phosphate Group Glycerol Backbone Water-Soluble Water-Insoluble
  • 27. <ul><li>The internal composition of the cell is maintained because the plasma membrane is selectively permeable to small molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Only small, relatively hydrophobic molecules are able to diffuse across a phospholipid bilayer at significant rates by using passive diffusion. </li></ul>Permeability of phospholipid bilayers
  • 28. Transport Across Membranes
  • 29. Transport Across Membranes: PASSIVE DIFFUSION The movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are at a high concentration to a region of lower concentration
  • 30.  
  • 31. <ul><li>Gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) </li></ul><ul><li>Water molecules (rate slow due to polarity) </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids (steroid hormones) </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid soluble molecules (hydrocarbons, alcohols, some vitamins) </li></ul><ul><li>Small noncharged molecules (NH 3 ) </li></ul>SIMPLE DIFFUSION
  • 32. <ul><li>Ions </li></ul><ul><li>(Na + , K + , Cl - ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars (Glucose) </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Small water soluble </li></ul><ul><li> molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Water (faster rate) </li></ul>FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  • 33. How do molecules move through the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion? <ul><li>Channel and Carrier proteins are specific: </li></ul><ul><li>Channel Proteins allow ions, small solutes, and water to pass </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier Proteins move glucose and amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitated diffusion is rate limited, by the number of proteins channels/carriers present in the membrane. </li></ul>
  • 34. <ul><ul><li>Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmotic pressure is the pressure that develops in a system due to osmosis. </li></ul></ul>OSMOSIS
  • 35. Concentration of water <ul><li>Direction of osmosis is determined by comparing total solute concentrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonic - more solute, less water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotonic - less solute, more water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotonic - equal solute, equal water </li></ul></ul>water net movement of water hypotonic hypertonic
  • 36. Active Transport <ul><li>Cells may need to move molecules against concentration gradient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shape change transports solute from one side of membrane to other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein “pump” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ costs” energy = ATP </li></ul></ul>“ The Doorman” conformational change ATP low high
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. <ul><ul><li>Endocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicles form as a way to transport molecules into a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Large,particulate matter ( Bacteria, viruses, and aged or dead cells). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Pinocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquids and small particles dissolved in liquid </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. <ul><ul><li>Exocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vesicles form as a way to transport molecules out of a cell </li></ul></ul>
  • 42. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Thick, clear liquid residing between the cell membrane holding organelles </li></ul><ul><li>many of the complex chemical reactions/ metabolic pathways take place here such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>gluconeogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>biosynthesis of sugars, fatty acids, and amino acids </li></ul>
  • 43. Mitochondria * site of cellular respiration * POWERHOUSE OF A CELL Where energy is released from nutrients * there are MANY in a single cell * has two layers, makes up a double membrane
  • 44. <ul><li>Act similar to electric power plant </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 300 to 800 per cell </li></ul><ul><li>Come from cytoplasm in EGG </li></ul><ul><li>You inherited your mitochondria from your mother </li></ul>
  • 45. certain organelles originated as free-living bacteria that were taken inside another cell as endosymbionts . Mitochondria developed from proteobacteria Can replicate itself: BINARY FISSION ENDOSYMBIOSIS
  • 46. <ul><li>(1) outer membrane </li></ul><ul><li>It is fairly smooth. </li></ul><ul><li>It is composed of phospholipid bilayer protein. </li></ul><ul><li>it has channel protein: hole protein , permit that small molecule substance freely pass. </li></ul>The ultrastructure of mitochondrion
  • 47. <ul><li>(2)inner membrane </li></ul><ul><li>they are more proteins than phospholipids. </li></ul><ul><li>it has no hole protein , so penetrability is weak . </li></ul>
  • 48. <ul><li>(3) intermembrane space </li></ul><ul><li>it contains enzymes . It can catalyze ATP to create ADP. </li></ul><ul><li>(4)Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are abundant in the matrix . It also contains mitochondrial genetic system including DNA and ribosome. </li></ul><ul><li>(5) elementary particle </li></ul><ul><li>it also call ATP synthase. </li></ul><ul><li>it lies in the inner membrane . </li></ul>
  • 49. The Functions of mitochondrion <ul><li>Production of ATP through respiration </li></ul><ul><li>cellular metabolism  </li></ul><ul><li>citric acid cycle or the Krebs Cycle </li></ul>
  • 50. Chloroplasts chloroplasts in plant cell cross section of leaf leaves chloroplast absorb sunlight & CO 2 make energy & sugar chloroplasts contain chlorophyll CO 2
  • 51. Structure <ul><li>Chloroplasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>double membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fluid-filled interior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thylakoid sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grana stacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thylakoid membrane contains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chlorophyll molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>electron transport chain </li></ul></ul>outer membrane inner membrane thylakoid granum stroma
  • 52.  
  • 53. Nucleus * surrounded by a nuclear membrane * only found in EUKARYOTES * contains genetic material (DNA) in the form of chromosomes that controls the activities of the cell * serves as the information and administrative center of the cell
  • 54.  
  • 55. <ul><li>Nucleoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear pores </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA + associated proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleolus </li></ul><ul><li>internal structure of nucleus, site of ribosome assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Chromatin vs. Chromosome </li></ul>Nucleus: Structure
  • 56. The Major Functions of the Nucleus <ul><li>stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA </li></ul><ul><li>coordinates the cell's activities </li></ul><ul><li>-intermediary metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>-growth </li></ul><ul><li>-protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>-reproduction (cell division) </li></ul>
  • 57. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - a series of interconnecting channels associated with storage, synthesis, and transport of substances within the cell two types: A) rough --the 'ER' studded with ribosomes B) smooth --the 'ER' without any ribosomes
  • 58. Rough endoplasmic reticulum production and processing of specific proteins at ribosomal sites.  
  • 59.  
  • 60. <ul><li>carbohydrate metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>regulation of calcium ions </li></ul><ul><li>synthesis of steroids and lipids </li></ul><ul><li>drug detoxification </li></ul><ul><li>metabolism of steroids </li></ul>Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  • 61. Ribosomes Protein Synthesis &quot;translates&quot; the genetic information from ` RNA into proteins
  • 62. <ul><li>looks like a stack of flattened pancakes </li></ul><ul><li>All of the proteins and lipids synthesized by the RER and SER are sent to the golgi.  </li></ul><ul><li>sorts, modifies, and packages the products of the RER and SER before sending them to their final destination inside or outside of the cell. </li></ul>Golgi Apparatus
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65. Vacuole &quot; a &quot;space&quot; in a cell that contains water or other materials; usually for storage A) food vacuoles--store food B) contractile vacuoles-- squeeze out excess water
  • 66. <ul><li>Centrioles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found in animal cells; rare in plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cylindrical structures (like cans) found in the cytoplasm that appears to function during cell division (reproduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and in the completion of cytokinesis </li></ul></ul> 
  • 67. <ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>found mostly in plant cells (some monerans, protists, and fungi too) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a non-living structure which surrounds and supports a cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of cellulose, a complex carbohydrate </li></ul></ul>
  • 68. Lysosome “ Suicidal bags of the cell” a vacuole that contains digestive enzymes; helps in the process of nutrition by breaking down nutrients in the cell
  • 69. <ul><li>Peroxisomes </li></ul><ul><li>helps to rid the body of the host organism of toxins </li></ul><ul><li>breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation </li></ul>
  • 70. <ul><li>Cilia and Flagella </li></ul><ul><ul><li>these are hair-like organelles that extend from the surface of many different types of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cilia--are typically smaller than flagella, but they cover the outside of the organism </li></ul><ul><li>flagella--are much longer than cilia, but there usually are few on a single cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>these structures usually aid in movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they can also help sweep materials along the outside of a cell </li></ul></ul>
  • 71.  

×