Ch3 cell biology lecture pt b (webb) nov 2010[1]

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Ch3 cell biology lecture pt b (webb) nov 2010[1]

  1. 1. Intercellular Junctions <ul><li>Tight junctions </li></ul><ul><li>close space between cells </li></ul><ul><li>located among cells that form linings </li></ul><ul><li>Desmosomes </li></ul><ul><li>form “spot welds” or “rivet” between cells </li></ul><ul><li>Except it works more like “velcro” </li></ul><ul><li>located among outer skin cells </li></ul><ul><li>Gap junctions </li></ul><ul><li>tubular channels between cells </li></ul><ul><li>located in cardiac muscle cells </li></ul>These molecules are also known as Cellular Adhesion Molecules (CAMS)
  2. 2. Cytoplasmic Organelles <ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul><ul><li>thin rods and tubules </li></ul><ul><li>support cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>allows for movement of organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusions </li></ul><ul><li>temporary nutrients and pigments </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nucleus: the control center of our cells! <ul><li>Nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>porous double membrane </li></ul><ul><li>separates nucleoplasm from cytoplasm </li></ul>Nucleolus dense collection of RNA and proteins site of ribosome production <ul><li>Chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>fibers of DNA and proteins </li></ul><ul><li>stores information for synthesis of proteins </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cytoplasmic Organelles <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connected, membrane-bound sacs, canals, and vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transport system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rough ER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>studded with ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lipid synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>added to proteins arriving from rough ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>break down of drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free floating or connected to ER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide structural support </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cytoplasmic Organelles <ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>stack of flattened, membranous sacs </li></ul><ul><li>modifies, packages and delivers proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Vesicles </li></ul><ul><li>membranous sacs </li></ul><ul><li>store substances </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>membranous sacs with inner partitions </li></ul><ul><li>generate energy </li></ul>
  6. 6. Figure 3-4 Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>stack of flattened, membranous sacs </li></ul><ul><li>modifies, packages and delivers proteins </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cytoplasmic Organelles <ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enzyme-containing sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digest worn out cell parts or unwanted substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peroxisomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enzyme-containing sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>break down organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centrosome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two rod-like centrioles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to produce cilia and flagella </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributes chromosomes during cell division </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Cell division is the reproduction of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Apoptosis is the genetically controlled death of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis is the nuclear division of somatic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis produces sex cells </li></ul>Cell Division
  10. 11. Cell Cycle <ul><li>Interphase (G 1 , S, and G 2 phases) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis (M phase) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The splitting of one mother cell into two identical daughter cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four phases of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Most somatic cells spend the majority of their lives in this phase </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G 2 </li></ul></ul>Interphase
  12. 13. Figure 3.27
  13. 14. Fig. 3-25a, Stage 1, p. 97
  14. 15. Fig. 3-25b, Stages 2 and 3, p. 97
  15. 16. Fig. 3-25b, Stage 4, p. 98

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