Final report


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Final report

  1. 1. 1. INTRODUCTIONRemote control for home appliances is an absolute necessity in our fast-paced life. As a result,much important has been given to this aspect and a range of remote controls are prevalent today.One of the most common is that which makes use of IR radiations at particular frequencies.Our product is a Remote Operated Home Appliance or Remote controlled Home appliance. Thecircuit is connected to any of the home appliances (lamp, fan, radio, etc) to make the applianceturn on/off from a TV, VCD, VCR, Air Conditioner or DVD remote control. The circuit can beactivated from up to 10 meters. It is very easy to build and can be assembled on a general-purpose PCB.The circuit essentially consists of a transmitter consisting of a 555 IC, the receiver consisting ofan IR module, CD4017 IC, LED‟s to indicate the reception of the IR radiations, otherwiseindicating the ON/OFF state, relay and other components.1|Page
  2. 2. 2. PRODUCT DESCRIPTION 2.1. Model DescriptionConnect this circuit to any of your home appliances (lamp, fan, radio, etc) to make the applianceturn on/off from a TV, VCD or DVD remote control. The circuit can be activated from up to 10meters. The 38 kHz infrared (IR) rays generated by the remote control are received by IRreceiver module TSOP1738 of the circuit. Pin 1 of TSOP1738 is connected to ground, pin 2 isconnected to the power supply through resistor R5 and the output is taken from pin 3. The outputsignal is amplified by transistor T1 (BC558). The amplified signal is fed to clock pin 14 ofdecade counter IC CD4017 (IC1). Pin 8 of IC1 is grounded, pin 16 is connected to Vcc and pin 3is connected to LED1 (red), which glows to indicate that the appliance is „off.‟2|Page
  3. 3. 3. FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM 3.1. Transmitter 3.2. Receiver3|Page
  4. 4. 4. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTIONThe product consists of a remote which is the transmitter of the IR radiations and the receiverwhich responds to the radiations and switches ON and OFF the appliance. 4.1. TRANSMITTER The transmitter is basically an astable multivibrator using 555 timer IC which provides a 38 kHzfrequency at its output. The circuit here uses 555 timer IC to avoid fast switching. (This can alsoachieved by using a high value capacitor across TSOP sensor.) You can only switch the circuitafter 3 seconds. The design for the circuit is as given below. 4.1.1. Design:Frequency f = 1.45/ (R1+2R2)CRequired f = 38000HzR1 = 1.2kR2 = 4.7k potC = 10 nF4|Page
  5. 5. 4.2. 555 TIMER IC: The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer, pulse generation and oscillator applications. The 555 has three operating modes: Monostable mode: in this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot". Applications include timers, missing pulse detection, bounce-free switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) etc Astable - free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks, tone generation, security alarms, pulse position modulation, etc. Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop, if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include bounce-free latched switches, etc. Internal block diagram of 555 IC 5|Page
  6. 6. 4.3. RECEIVERConnect this circuit to any of your home appliances (lamp, fan, radio, etc) to make the applianceturn on/off from a TV, VCD or DVD remote control. The circuit can be activated from up to 10meters. 4.4. Circuit Operation: The 38 kHz infrared rays generated by the remote control are received by IR receiver moduleTSOP1738 of the circuit. Pin 1 of TSOP1738 is connected to ground, pin 2 is connected to thepower supply through resistor R5 and the output is taken from pin 3. The output signal isamplified by T1 (BC558). The amplified signal is fed to clock pin 14 of decade counter ICCD4017 (IC1). Pin 8 of IC1 is grounded, pin 16 is connected to Vcc and pin 3 is connected toLED1 (Red),which glows to indicate that the applianceis„off.‟ The output of IC1 is taken from its pin 2. LED2 connected to pin 2 is used to indicate the „on‟state of the appliance. Transistor T2 (BC548) connected to pin 2 of IC1 drives relay RL1. DiodeIN4007 (D1) acts as a freewheeling diode. The appliance to be controlled is connected betweenthe pole of the relay and neutral terminal of mains. It gets connected to live terminal of ACmains via normally opened (N/O) contact when the relay energizes. Result, we get a relaytoggling on each press on the remote.( If a DC 12 volt relay is to be operated, then a regulatedDC 12 volt power supply is used and the circuit voltage should not exceed DC 5 volts). Anyappliance connected to this circuit can be switched ON or OFF.6|Page
  7. 7. 4.4. PHOTOMODULE (TSOP1738):The TSOP17XX – series are miniaturized receivers for infrared remote control systems. PINdiode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame, the epoxy-package is designed as IR filter.The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microprocessor. TSOP17XX is thestandard IR remote control receiver series, supporting all major transmission codes.4.5. CD4017BC IC:It is a 5 stage divide by 10 Johnson counter with 10 decoded outputs and a carry out bit. Theconfiguration of this IC permits medium speed operation and assures a hazard-free countingsequence. The 10/8 decoded outputs are normally in the logical “0” state and go to the logical“1” state only at their respective time slot. Each decoded output remains high for one full clockcycle. The carry-out signal completes a full cycle for every 10/8 clock input cycles and is used asa ripple carry signal to any succeeding stages.4.6. RELAY ( 5V DC):Relays are components which allow a low-power circuit to switch a relatively high current onand off, or to control signals that must be electrically isolated from the controlling circuit itself.7|Page
  8. 8. 5. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 5.1. Transmitter8|Page
  9. 9. 5.2 Receiver9|Page
  10. 10. 6. LIST OF COMPONENTSR1 = 220KR2 = 330RR3 = 1KR4 = 330RR5 = 47RC1 = 100uF-16VC2 = 100nF-63VC3 = 470uF-16VD1 = 1N4007D2 = Red LEDD3 = Green LEDQ1 = BC558Q2 = BC548IR = TSOP1738IC1 = CD4017RL1 = Relay 5V DC10 | P a g e
  11. 11. 7. PCB LAYOUT 7.1 Transmitter 7.2 Receiver11 | P a g e
  12. 12. 8. PCB FABRICATION FABRICATION PROCESS The materials required for PCB fabrication are copper clad sheet, paint, drilling machine and ferric chloride solution. Steps involved in making a PCB:I. Preparing the layout of the track: The track layout of the electronic circuit may be drawn on a white paper. The layout should be made in such a way that paths are in each routes. This enables PCB to be more compact and economical.II. Transferring the layout to the copper: The layout made on white paper should be redrawn on the copper clad using paint or nail varnish.III. Etching: Ferric chloride solution is popularly used etching solution. The ferric chloride powder is made into a solution using water and kept in a plastic tray. Immerse the markedcopper clad in this for two hours. Due to reaction, the solution will become weak.The copper in the unmarked area will be etched out. Take out the etched sheet from the tray and dry.IV. Drilling: The holes are made using a drilling machine, for component insertion. 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. 9. SOLDERING PRACTICE Soldering is the process of joining two or more similar or dissimilar metals by melting another metal having low melting point. The materials used for soldering practice are solder, flux, knife, soldering iron, nose pliers. Soldering procedure:i. Make a layout of the connections of the components in the circuit. Plug in the chord of the soldering iron into the mains to get it heated up.ii. Check the components by using the multimeter. Then clean the component leads using a blade or knife. Apply a little flux on the leads. Take a little solder on the soldering iron and apply the molten solder on the leads.iii. Mount the components on the PCB by bending the leads of the components using nose plier or tweezer.iv. Apply flux on the joints and solder the joints. Soldering must be done in minimum time to avoid dry soldering and heating up of the components.v. Wash the residues using water and brush. 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. 10. TESTINGAfter soldering the components on to the PCB, the boards are thoroughly cleaned for removingany residual flux and wire leads. All the components are checked for their values and properorientation if applicable. Before ICs are inserted into the sockets, power is applied to the boardand voltages are measured at the IC power points. Other DC voltages are also checked ifpossible. Then power is removed from the board, and ICs are inserted into the sockets, checkingthe proper orientation. Power is again applied to the board expected voltages and signals aremonitored.The supply voltages are monitored and verified. Working is tested by aiming the IR beam fromthe transmitter to the IR module of the receiver and observing the lighting of the LEDs in thereceiver.14 | P a g e
  15. 15. 11. APPLICATIONSA remote controlled device primarily saves a lot of time and energy. Its significance in today‟sworld is immense when people don‟t have to unnecessarily waste their time in operating theappliances by being near to the appliance. They can operate it while they‟re engrossed inwhatever task they‟re doing and don‟t have to bother leaving it in between.The remote control can extend up to a long distance depending on the frequency used and theefficiency of the circuit. It is an advantage that it can be operated from distances.It can be used in the case of a number of devices and applications such as TV, VCR, camera, CDspeller, radio, lamp, fan, music system or even tasks such as simply opening a door.A single remote control can be made to operate at different frequencies, each corresponding to aparticular task to be performed by the appliance, for example television. This is a furtherapplication where a compact device can perform multiple operations.Tediousness of operating the appliance in its close proximity is done away with. The circuit hasthe advantages that it can be easily implemented using easily available and low cost components.The maintenance is also easy.15 | P a g e
  16. 16. 12. CONCLUSIONThe product to demonstrate the remote controlled operation of home appliances has beensuccessfully implemented and favorable results have been obtained. This is a commerciallyviable product and its application is widespread these days with almost all home appliances.Since IR radiations are made use of here, each task can be designed to be performed at differentfrequencies, each specific to a particular task. As a result of which several operations can beperformed on a single appliance, as in the case of television. The product finds great scopefuturistically, as part of an environment where man restricts his motion and performs his day-to-day activities on a remote controlled basis.16 | P a g e
  17. 17. REFERENCES1. Electronic-Components-with-A-Primer-on-Basic-8122301525-97881223015266. 17 | P a g e