QUIZ1. GIVE EXPLANATION ABOUT :CORAL, REEF AND CORAL REEF2. DISCRIBE ABOUT : FRINGING REEF, BARRIER REEF AND ATOL3. TIME 15’4. INDIVIDUAL WORK
FAKTOR PEMBATAS TERUMBU KARANG TEMPERATUR KEDALAMAN INTENSITAS CAHAYA SALINITAS SEDIMENTASI
SUHU SALINITASTerumbu karang tumbuh dan Terumbu karang hanya dapat berkembang optimal pada hidup di perairan laut perairan bersuhu rata-rata dengan salinitas normal tahunan 23-25 °C, dan dapat 3235 ‰. menoleransi suhu sampai CAHAYA DAN KEDALAMAN dengan 36-40 °C. Kedua faktor tersebut berperan penting untuk kelangsungan proses fotosintesis oleh zooxantellae yang terdapat di jaringan karang
PRODUKTIVITASComparison of gross Factors contributing to high productivity may include: primary Runoff from land (except for atolls) Upwelling in the water column productivity/produkt Groundwater leaching ivitas primer bruto: Tight recycling of biological processes High rate of flow of water brings externalOpen Tropical oceans nutrients in Combination of factors ~ 18-50 gC/m2/yr Limiting factors are thought to be nitrogen and phosphorus, although nitrogen mayTropical coral reefs ~ not be so much as phosphorus due to action of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. 1,500 – 5,000 Both nitrogen and phosphorus may exist in gC/m2/yr water as dissolved substances or as POM or particulate organic matter floating in the water
Coral Nutrition: Carnivorous animals Symbiotic zooxanthellae – Predatory – use nematocysts acquired either directly from to capture planktonic th parent or from the organisms environment at large – Mucus Membranes – trap generally species specific organisms that are then Since coral are colonial and shuttled into the frequently have gastrovascular cavity by interconnected ciliary action gastrovascular cavities, nutrients can be moved from one organism to another
Species Interaction Competition – Space is a Adaptation of slower primary limiting factor in growing corals include coral reefs shade tolerance, so they can grow at greater depth Exploitative Competition – one species extends itself Interference Competition – up and over another in slow growing species can competition for light. extend digestive filaments Where this occurs, the which kill adjacent encrusted species does not competing species get sufficient light and the There is also competition part in the shade dies between corals and other At surface levels, faster species, especially algae growing corals will overtop Competition among corals massive, slower growing and algal forms is reduced corals and kill them by grazing
Predation – Many species graze the coralpolyps as well as the algae in reefs. species tend to be dietary specialists, feeding on only one type of coral and have a tendency to prey on faster growing corals Crown of thorns starfish is capable of destroying an entire colony, if not controlled by symbiotic shrimp that repulse the starfish 2 groups of grazers: the corallivores which specifically target the coral polyps, and the multivores, which remove coral polyps to get at algae or other boring invertebrates
Catastrophic Mortality and Reef Recovery Suffer from major large- Coral bleaching – corals scale destructive forces expel their zooxanthellae. Severe tropical storms This can be a result of higher Population explosions of water temperature due to predators, especially the sea changing local weather star patterns and may be an early warning sign of global El nino – causes warming temperature elevation and Human activity – dredging, local redirection of water levels which result in large pollution, overfishing tracts of reef being damaged
PEMBAGIAN KELOMPOK KELOMPOK I : PIC. OF POLYP OF A SCLERACTINIAN CORAL KELOMPOK II : THE POSSIBLE BENEFIT OF ZOOXANTHELLAE KELOMPOK III : FACTOR LIMITING CORAL GROWTH KELOMPOK IV : THREATS OF CORAL REEFS?
KELOMPOK V : CORAL REEF FUNCTION FOR ECOLOGY AND HUMAN KELOMPOK VI : CORAL LIFE FORM KELOMPOK III : CORAL REPRODUCTION
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