1. states of consciousness intro


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1. states of consciousness intro

  1. 1. States of Consciousness
  2. 2. WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS? <ul><li>Consciousness refers to your individual awareness of your unique thoughts, memories, feelings, sensations and environment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Your conscious experiences are constantly shifting and changing depending on your attention. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>For example, in one moment you may be focused on reading this slide. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Your consciousness may then shift to the memory of a conversation you had earlier with a classmate. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Next, you might notice how uncomfortable your chair is or maybe you are mentally planning dinner. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>This ever-shifting stream of thoughts can change dramatically from one moment to the next, but your experience of it seems smooth and effortless. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The conscious experience was one of the first topics studied by early psychologists. </li></ul><ul><li>Structuralists used a process known as introspection to analyse and report conscious sensations, thoughts, and experiences . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>We will now complete ‘Try it Yourself’ 1.1 on exploring your own consciousness... </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>French philosopher René Descartes (1596–1650) (pronounced ‘Day-Cart’ ) and American psychologist William James (1842–1910) were two highly articulate and influential people who wrote about consciousness. Their work had a profound influence on psychology and is still discussed today. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cogito Ergo Sum <ul><li>Descartes equated the mind with consciousness. The mind creates our real experience of the world and it interacts with our body. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to study the mind, one’s thoughts and feelings (‘I think’) must be observed because they make us exist in our world (‘therefore I am’ ). </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>American psychologist William James compared consciousness to a stream; unbroken and continuous despite constant shifts and changes. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Key Terms and Ideas <ul><li>For the exam, you must know definitions for the following key terms and concepts and be able to relate them to an example where appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>dualism </li></ul><ul><li>functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>hypothetical construct </li></ul><ul><li>materialistic monism </li></ul><ul><li>mind-body problem </li></ul><ul><li>monism </li></ul><ul><li>psychological construct </li></ul><ul><li>For the exam, you must know: </li></ul><ul><li>> the reason why consciousness is a psychological construct. </li></ul><ul><li>> examples of consciousness as a psychological constructs (namely the work of Descartes and James) </li></ul><ul><li>> the difference between monism (especially materialistic monism) and dualism </li></ul><ul><li>> the difference between structuralism and functionalism . </li></ul>
  14. 16. REVIEW QUESTIONS <ul><li>Define consciousness with reference to internal and external factors </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways is consciousness personal, subjective, continuous and changing? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Descarte describe consciousness? To what extent is his view different from contemporary psychological descriptions? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>How does James describe consciousness? To what extent is his view different from contemporary psychological descriptions? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>In what ways are Descarte and James’ views similar/different. </li></ul>