4-EMPLOYEEINVOLVEMENTREFERENCESTotal Quality Management by Besterfield et alQuality Planning and Analysis by Juran and GrynaThe Management and Control of Quality by Evans andLindsay
Course Overview Introduction to TQM Historical Review of Quality Benefits of Quality Management Quality Guru’s and their Contribution TQM Infrastructure Leadership & Strategic Planning Strategic Quality Planning TQM program Implementation
TQM Infrastructure Customer relationship management Leadership and strategic planning Human resources management Process management Data and information management
Revisiting History The Taylor System (late 19th & early 20th Cen) Supervisors & Workers lacked education required for essential decisions Separate Planning from execution Engineers & Specialists to plan Supervisors & workers to execute Results: Spectacular increases in productivity. Wide spread acceptance
Some Draw backs of Taylor System (Later known as Scientific Management) Workers do not understand their contribution to organizations’ mission The work itself is monotonous & meaningless. Lacks self accomplishment Feedback about info they need to regulate the process often inadequate Little opportunity for workers to participate in Quality Improvement Projects Inspectors rather than workers
Human Resources Only resource competitors cannot copy No organization can survive without good people, who are improving (Deming) Human Resources Management: “Activities designed to provide for
TQ-Based HR Practices Communicate the importance of each employee’s contribution to TQ Stress Quality related synergies through team work (a whole is greater than sum of its parts) Empower employees to “Make a difference” Reinforce individuals & teams with rewards & reinforcements.
Realizing Goals through….. Promote team work and skill sharing across work units Examples Fedex: 4000 Quality Action Teams Boeing airlift and tanker operations: Over 100 integrated product teams consisting engineers, work- team, customer & supplier Organize & manage work to promote cooperation, empowerment and
Realizing Goals through….. Empower individuals and teams to make decisions that affect quality & Cust-Satisf Effective Performance Management, compensation, reward & recognition systems Effective systems for hiring and career progress Extensive investments in training & education
Empowerment Different from delegation or job enrichment Delegation refers to distributing and entrusting work to others Empowerment requires that employee is held responsible for the whole task People generally want to be more in charge of their jobs and careers
Teams Source of Employee Involvement A group of people working together to achieve common goalsThe objective Solve a problem Improve a process Design a product Audit a process etc
Types of Teams Process Improvement Teams Cross Functional Team Natural Work Teams Self Directed Teams Quality Circles
Process Improvement Teams Includes representative(s) from each operation of the process (Mandatory Participation) Improve or develop specific business process External or internal supplier/customer could be added depending upon location Usually disbanded after the objective is
Cross-Functional Team Represented by each functional area representative (6-10 members) May include customer or supplier Usually temporary with the exception of product review team
Self Directed Teams Example of empowered organization Discretion to organize their work subject to organizational work flow requirements Team coordinator to liaison with senior management (can be rotational) Meets daily to plan activities. Decision making usually by consensus 68% of Fortune 1000 companies use SDT Only 10% workers are involved in
Quality Circles Group of work force level employees usually from one functional area Voluntary participation in weekly meeting (on company time) Select and address quality problems that occur within their department Provided training on problem solving techniques.
Quality Circles Cont….. Pursue two types of goals Personal well being of the employee: Removing frustrating issues related to work environment Well being of the company Later on solve company problems with focus on products and process Benefit: Improved quality for both internal & external customers
Quality Circles: Benefits Improve individual self respect Increase respect b/w supervisors & workers Changes workers’ negative attitude Reduce conflict stemming from work environment Workers understand why many problems cannot be solved quickly Instills in workers better understanding of product quality
Recruitment Goal: Success of recruits on the job Remove defects in the hiring process Focus on enthusiasm, creativity & flexibility rather than only on cognitive ability To apply quality principals at work all workers must have basic mathematics & logical thinking abilities Managerial roles shift from directing & controlling to coaching & facilitating Growth in horizontal direction more useful
Training Companies committed to TQ invest heavily in training One of largest initial costs of TQ initiative Usually includes quality awareness, leadership, project management, communications, teamw ork, data analysis, meeting customer requirements, process analysis, waste reduction, cycle time reduction and
Compensation Monetary benefits possible source of dissatisfaction Objective: Reducing un explainable variation in pay TQ focused organizations base compensation on the market rate for an individual with proven capabilities & then make adjustments according to experience and capabilities
Recognition & Rewards Can be monetary or non monetary Might include trips, promotional gifts, clothing, time off, or special company sponsored awards and events Works better for hourly workers than for managers and technical employees For these groups stock options are more successful Should involve every one
Recognition & Rewardscont…. Tie rewards to quality based measurable objectives (reward for each suggestion implemented) Publicize extensively (newsletters, wall of fame, certificates, special lunch etc)
Performance Appraisals How one is evaluated determines how one performs Process for evaluating and generating info about employee’s effectiveness & efficiency at work Objectives: Feedback to employees, assessing training needs, identify people for promotions etc
Performance Appraisals:Flaws Foster mediocrity & discourage risk taking Focus on short-term measurable results Focus on individuals & destroy team work Process is detection oriented rather than prevention oriented Usually fail to distinguish b/w factors that are in employees’ control and
Performance Appraisalscont… Many companies are now using 360 degree evaluation Some are replacing evaluation with personal planning & development systems Manager meet employees to set future expectations Identify training needs, provide coaching and reward continuous improvement No stigma is attached to failure.
Measuring EmployeeSatisfaction and Effectiveness Satisfaction ◦ Quality of worklife, teamwork, communications, training, leadership, compensation, benefits, internal suppliers and customers Effectiveness ◦ Team and individual behaviors; cost, quality, and productivity improvements; employee turnover; suggestions; training effectiveness
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