Ch – “Communication barriers”
1. Language and Semantic Barriers
Lack of Common Language
Example: English speaking boss and Tamil speaking
worker. this barrier widens when extended to different
Poor Grammar and Punctuation
Roundabout Verbiage – it consists of usage of
troublesome or exhausted words which creates
misunderstanding and confusion.
Example: instead of ‘saying prior to’ we can say ‘before’
SEMANTICS are concerned with problems and obstructions
in the process of encoding and decoding message into
words or other impressions.
Definition of words
Choice of words
Words like: cheap, light etc.
Give me water to drink
The water dispute of Punjab,Haryana
Organizational rules and regulations
Rigid rules ---- more delay and discouragement
Flexible Rules ---- motivation to come up with new ideas.
Hierarchical Barriers --- the formal superior subordinate
relations restricts the the flow of messages . the greater
the difference in the Hierarchical position the greater is
the communication gap.
Specialization of the Workforce – in large organizations
the tasks are specified and procedures are structured in
such a way that no one has time to come out of their
departments this leads to comm. Gap.
Non conducting of staff meetings – staff meeting are
conducted to know the grievances and suggestions of
employees. If these meetings are not conducted then
flow of communication is interrupted.
Information Overload or inadequate – it refers to
amount and complexity of messages received by the
receiver.routine and simple messages are easy to
handle but information which is more complex are
difficult to handle and it leads to gossips, rumours which
prove harmful for organisation
Wrong Choice of the Medium
When to use certain channel
Oral :Interviews, conversations, speeches,
telephone talks, conferences etc.
Written :Required mainly in case of formal
• Sales manager: Face to face
• Smuggler: Oral --- wrong
• Traffic Police: Oral --- wrong
• Uneducated : Audio Visual --- Wrong
Noise: any disturbance that reduces clarity and
effectiveness of communication
e.g. - loud noise of machines makes a person unable to
hear the message.
Time: the time at which message is delieverd is also
important otherwise it becomes a barrier.
e.g. A guest at midnight, an order at closing hour.
Distance: distance between the receiver and
communicator can also become a barrier.
e.g import-export transactions depends upon use of Fax,
telephone etc. if these facilities are not effective then
message communicated can be distorted.
Sex: assertive and aggressive more--- men
expression of emotions and feelings more --- women
Age: generation gap – interest in sports, cocktail parties
Status is position or social rank of person in group, depends
upon – amount of pay, job skills, seniority, type of work
Attitudes and Values
Attitude serves personal needs of people, it provide
satisfaction. both based on opinions and backgrounds.
Agreeable information – which is acceptable E.G – Govt
policy. People will accept it only if it is favourable otherwise
they wil oppose it.
Abstracting : Process of focusing attention on specific
details and ignoring others. E.G – when we prepare a
report we include only crucial points other we tend to
Inference: Statements which are based on facts but go
beyond facts. . E.G – when ever we go by train we infer
that we will reach our destination safely. This is our
assumption but what if there is accident?
A person’s view of reality
How people see reality varies and influences
their judgment and decision making
Stereotypes:Mental images and expectations.
A shortcut to forming an opinion of someone.
Halo effects an extension of an overall impression
of a person (or one particular outstanding trait) to
influence the total judgment of that person.
Example : If a person is bestowed with good physical
beauty, then this person is also presumed to possess a host
of other positive attributes as well, such as social
competence, intellectual competence, and personal
Projection When a person has uncomfortable
thoughts or feelings, they may project these onto
other people, assigning the thoughts or feelings
that they need to repress to a convenient
Example : I do not like another person. But I have a value
that says I should like everyone. So I project onto them that
they do not like me. This allows me to avoid them and also
to handle my own feelings of dislike.
An unfaithful husband suspects his wife of
Past experience: Past distorts present expectations
FILTERING : manipulation of information so that it will
seem more favorably to the receiver. When a message
is transmitted through translation, explanation,
simplification some part of it goes distorted or-filtered
Allness and closeness of mind: a close minded person
means who is not open to new ideas, innovations etc.
when a subordinate approaches a close minded boss
with some suggestion he would not entertain it.
LISTEN TO RESPOND
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
• ABSENCE OF FEEDBACK, POOR
• Attitude of superiors
• Attitude of subordinates
Emotions emotional interferences include hostility,
anger, resentfulness and fear.