Historical Perspective of
Disasters in Kenya
Lessons Learned
Jack Abebe
PhD Candidate
Masinde Muliro University
Outline
 Historical data (1900 – 2005)
 Disaster type
 Casualties
 Response
 Mitigation
 Lessons learned
 Way forwa...
Historical data
Date

Disaster

Region
(Kenya)

Casualties

Response

Remarks

1896 1900

- Famine
- Locust
- Rinderpest

...
Date

Disaster Region
(Kenya)

Casualties

Response

Remarks

1942 1944

Famine

Countywide

Approx. 200
people

-

WW2
Mi...
Date Disaster

Region
(Kenya)

Casualties

1965

Famine

Countrywide

1973
1974

Drought

Countrywide

150,000
people
affe...
Date Disaster

Region
(Kenya)

Casualties

Response

Remarks

1975

Terrorism bomb blast

Nairobi OTC bus

27

Government
...
Date Disaster Region
(Kenya)

Casualties

Response

Remarks

1992
1993

Drought

Countrywide

-2.7 M
people
affected
- 70%...
Date

Disaster Region
(Kenya)

Casualties

Response

Remarks

1997 1998

Floods –
El Nino

Countrywide
L.Victoria
basin mo...
Date

Disaster Region Casualties
(Kenya)

Response

Remarks

1999 2000

Drought

Countrywide

4.4 million
people
affected
...
Date

Disaster

Region
(Kenya)

Casualties

Response

2004

Landslides

Nyeri
district

5 dead

Rescue by
Landslides in
lo...
Lessons Learned
• Major disasters ?
• Emerging disasters ?
• Contributing factors ?
• Compounding factors ?
• Trends / Pat...
Lessons Learned….
Major disasters
•
•
•
•

Famine
Floods
Disease epidemics
Traffic accidents

Emerging disaster
•
•
•
•
•
...
Contributing factors:
 Climatic variability
 Population increase
 Land degradation
 Global warming?

Compounding facto...
Trends / Pattern
• Increase in frequency
• Increase in magnitude and severity
- increase in loss of life and vulnerable
po...
Disaster Management Capacity
 Policy ( in process)
 Institutional framework (coordination)
 Undeveloped SDI (formative ...
Food Security Monitoring
Food Security Risk Assessment
Flood Risk Assessment
Challenges
 Policy formulation
 Institutional framework
 Development of SDI (R&D)
 Mainstreaming of Geo-info in DSS
 ...
Opportunities
 Existing institutions / Universities
Trained manpower
Availability of free data sources
 Public awarene...
Way Forward
Building on the existing capacity and
opportunities
End
Questions are Welcome
Thank You!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Natural disasters in_kenya_ppt_jack abebe

259
-1

Published on

This describes disasters in Kenya BASED ON HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, and lessons learnt

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
259
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Natural disasters in_kenya_ppt_jack abebe

  1. 1. Historical Perspective of Disasters in Kenya Lessons Learned Jack Abebe PhD Candidate Masinde Muliro University
  2. 2. Outline  Historical data (1900 – 2005)  Disaster type  Casualties  Response  Mitigation  Lessons learned  Way forward
  3. 3. Historical data Date Disaster Region (Kenya) Casualties Response Remarks 1896 1900 - Famine - Locust - Rinderpest Central and Eastern 25 – 75 % of pop. in some areas - Uganda Railway construction 1913 1919 - Famine Coast and Eastern - - - WW1 - Giriama rebellion 1933 1934 - Great famine Coast and Central 50 % loss of livestock - Forced destocking - Soil conservation Demo sites set up in Machakos and Baringo
  4. 4. Date Disaster Region (Kenya) Casualties Response Remarks 1942 1944 Famine Countywide Approx. 200 people - WW2 Military demand for food 1952 1955 -Drought Central Over 50% of the pop. Concentrati on camps Mau Mau rebellion State of emergency declared Rift Valley, Eastern, Nyanza 70 – 80 % loss of Maasai cattle - Widespread crop failure 10m pounds Political spent on campaigns food relief - rescue operations by air - Famine 1960 1961 Heavy Floods
  5. 5. Date Disaster Region (Kenya) Casualties 1965 Famine Countrywide 1973 1974 Drought Countrywide 150,000 people affected 1975 Floods Countrywide L. Victoria basin most affected - 600,000 people affected Response Remarks US, WFP donation (yellow maize) - Policy reform in agric. sector Establishm ent of Kenya Freedom From Hunger Council -Food aid - Livestock restocking M/East war led to sharp rise in oil prices - Damage of roads and property
  6. 6. Date Disaster Region (Kenya) Casualties Response Remarks 1975 Terrorism bomb blast Nairobi OTC bus 27 Government investigation Political instability 1977 Floods Landslides Rift Valley Damage to Maize and wheat crop - - 1981 Terrorism – Nairobi 5 bomb blast -Norfolk hotel International investigation Linked to M/East crisis 1983 1984 Drought -International appeal for food relief - setting up of strategic food reserve President promotes Soil conservation and tree planting Countrywide Over 600,000 people affected Over 50% loss of livestock
  7. 7. Date Disaster Region (Kenya) Casualties Response Remarks 1992 1993 Drought Countrywide -2.7 M people affected - 70% of livestock lost -food importation -Int. appeal for food aid -Setting up of the Dept. of Relief and Rehabilitation Collapse of agricultural institutions blamed for food insecurity 1994 Ferry accident Mombasa 270 dead Rescue operations by the Navy and Ports authority Overloading and faulty engine blamed
  8. 8. Date Disaster Region (Kenya) Casualties Response Remarks 1997 1998 Floods – El Nino Countrywide L.Victoria basin most affected - 1.5 million people affected - Damage to infrastructure and property - Damage to crops - relief supplies / air drops by GOK, UN, NGOs Setting up El Nino Emergency Project and Disaster Coordination Office at OP Outbreak of water borne diseases 1998 Terrorist attack – bomb blast Nairobi – US embassy 214 dead 5,600 injured Army involved in rescue operations – International support Restriction s on border entry points
  9. 9. Date Disaster Region Casualties (Kenya) Response Remarks 1999 2000 Drought Countrywide 4.4 million people affected -livestock deaths and crop failure -Relief supplies - Setting up of emergency diesel power generators -economy affected by power rationing - Diversification of power generation National food security policy revisited 2001 HIV/Aids Countrywide -Over 2 million affected (600 dying daily) - Hospital bed occupancy about 50 % -Donor support -Setting up National Aids Control Council -Research HIV/Aids declared a national disaster by the President -Labour force severely affected
  10. 10. Date Disaster Region (Kenya) Casualties Response 2004 Landslides Nyeri district 5 dead Rescue by Landslides in local Kenya not communities yet fully studied 2004 Food Makueni, 82 dead Poisoning Machakos hundreds (Alfatoxin) Kitui hospitalized districts 2005 Alcohol poisoning -Medical supplies -Food inspection -Public awareness campaigns Machakos Over 50 dead Medication scores Crackdown blinded on illicit brew Source : CBS, WFP, CETRAD, National Disaster Management Agency Remarks -Food traders blamed for the poisoning -WFP denies that it donated the food Indication of poverty level
  11. 11. Lessons Learned • Major disasters ? • Emerging disasters ? • Contributing factors ? • Compounding factors ? • Trends / Patterns ? • Management capacity ?
  12. 12. Lessons Learned…. Major disasters • • • • Famine Floods Disease epidemics Traffic accidents Emerging disaster • • • • • • Fires Landslides Invasive species Terrorism Food poisoning Tsunami?
  13. 13. Contributing factors:  Climatic variability  Population increase  Land degradation  Global warming? Compounding factors:  Political instability / Insecurity  Poverty  Communication network
  14. 14. Trends / Pattern • Increase in frequency • Increase in magnitude and severity - increase in loss of life and vulnerable population - increase in loss of property and damage to infrastructure
  15. 15. Disaster Management Capacity  Policy ( in process)  Institutional framework (coordination)  Undeveloped SDI (formative stage)  Low budgetary support  Breakdown of traditional institutions and knowledge * Lack of comprehensive preparedness (EWS), response, mitigation, prevention) * Reactive / emergency response * Over dependence on external aid
  16. 16. Food Security Monitoring
  17. 17. Food Security Risk Assessment
  18. 18. Flood Risk Assessment
  19. 19. Challenges  Policy formulation  Institutional framework  Development of SDI (R&D)  Mainstreaming of Geo-info in DSS  Capacity building  Budgetary support  Regional collaboration  Conflict resolution
  20. 20. Opportunities  Existing institutions / Universities Trained manpower Availability of free data sources  Public awareness  Improved communication network (ICT)  Regional organizations (EAC, IGAD, SADC, AU, UN system etc)  Relative political stability in the region  Networking and linkages
  21. 21. Way Forward Building on the existing capacity and opportunities
  22. 22. End Questions are Welcome Thank You!
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×